1. Why does the trachea lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium while the alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium? The trachea is lined with pseudostrastified ciliated columnar epithelium because the globlet cells that are there produce sticky mucous to coat the inner lining and catch any debris in inhaled air before it gets to the lungs. The columnar cells have cilia that push mucous away from the lungs. The alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium because the very thin epithelium will facilitate the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The articular surface is enlarged by a fibrocartilaginous articular labrum. The lunate surface is crescentic and medially is has the acetabular notch through which the intrascapular ligament of the femoral head emerge and joins the femoral head to the acetabular fossa.
Lymph flow through the node is one-way, entering through several afferent vessels on the convex side of the node’s ‘bean shape’ which contain valves opening toward the node’s centre, directing lymph into the node. Lymph then flows through three sinuses, irregular channels containing branching reticular fibres, lymphocytes, and macrophages, first the subcapsular sinus, immediately beneath the capsule, then the trabecular sinuses extending through the cortex parallel to the trabeculae, and then into the medullary sinuses. All sinuses filter the
The four systems are the digestive system, the respiratory system, the circulatory system, lymphatic system and the urinary system. The digestive system is divided into two sections i.e. the alimentary canal this is about nine meters long which starts from the mouth and ends at the anus. The second section is the accessory organs these are organs which assist with digestion, absorption and storage of food substances. This includes the pancreas, liver and the gall bladder.
rectus abdominis) is a thin strap-like muscle, enclosed between two sheets of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique, and separated from its fellow of the opposite side by the linea alba. The muscle originates from the lateral border of the sternum, including the xiphoid process; also the ventral surfaces of the 1st to 7th costal cartilages. Its insertion lies at the anterior end of the pubic symphysis (Bensley and Craigie, 1948). The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the transverse abdominal muscle (m. transversus abdominis) which originates from 7 posterior ribs, the middle layer of the lumbar fascia, and the inguinal ligament.
Hind brain (Rhombincephalan) the hind brain contain the brain stem and the medulla oblongata (Myelencephalon) form by the anterior thickening of basal plate and posterior alar plate separated by sulcus in the fourth ventricle. The hind brain continues to form the spinal cord. As like cerebrum, cerebellum has fissured mass in the posterior cranial fossa attached with brain stem by three pairs of peduncles. From the base of the brain stem the 12 pairs of cranial nerves are arising. The motor nuclei of the IX, X, XI and XII cranial nerves line in the fourth ventricle is formed by the basal plate neurons.
It affects premature infants because their lungs not fully develop and the lungs don’t have an insufficient surfactant. The surfactant is a complex phospholipid+ protein secreted by type 2 cell. It reduces surface the tension of alveolus. It keeps the alveoli open and prevents a collapse of the alveoli. When the surfactant is inadequate the alveoli will collapse, lung expansion will become more difficult ( compliance).
The organs of the lower respiratory tract are located in the chest cavity. They are laid out and protected by the ribcage, the chest bone (sternum), and the muscles between the ribs and the diaphragm (that constitute a muscular partition between the chest and the abdominal cavity). The nostrils form the main exterior opening for the respiratory system and are the first section of the body’s airway. Nostrils are involved in the intake of air, that is, they bring air into the nose, where the air is warmed and humidified. The tiny hairs called cilia filters out dust and other particles present in the air and protects the nasal passage and other regions of the respiratory
Another organ from the respiratory system is the oral cavity, in simpler terms the mouth. It is the external component of the respiratory system. The oral cavity lacks hair and mucus membranes to filter. Air can also be inhaled through the oral cavity if breathing through the nasal cavity is difficult. The pharynx is also part of the respiratory system and it is known as the throat in simpler words.
Purpose The purpose of the lab is to dissect a pig heart in order to identify all of the parts of main chambers, valves, and vessels. To able to know the circulation the blood through the heart to the lungs and identify each section of the pig heart. The pig heart has four chambers which it is two atria and two ventricles. They both pump the blood and give the body what it needs.