While increasing the film thickness to 595 nm, L21 cubic structure is observed. Further increase in the film thickness ~1020 nm, the Ni-rich formation occurred which leads to L12 phase structure (non-magnetic) and which was reported in earlier work.7 Fig. 1 shows the 3D configuration of Ni-Mn-Ga thin films sputtered on Si (100) substrate at different thicknesses. The topography images of the films are composed in equiaxied grain and irregular spherical shaped particles are
The scanning angle 2θ was varied in the range of 10-80 in steps of 0.05º. The optical absorption spectrum of these thin films was recorded in the wavelength range 300 to 1100 nm using Shimadzu-UV 1800 model double beam spectrophotometer The room temperature electrical resistivity, hall co-efficient, mobility and carrier concentration were measured using an automated Hall Effect system (ECOPIA HMS – 3000). The surface morphology of the SnS2 thin films was examined by CARLZEISS (EVO18) scanning electron microscope with a magnification of ------------. The chemical composition of Tin and Sulfur was determined by energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX) on K and L lines using BRUKER (XFLASH X130)
4.9 Characterization of silver nanoparticles 4.9.1 UV- Visible spectra analysis The reduction of metallic Ag+ ions was monitored by measuring the UV- Visible spectrum after about 16 hours of reaction. The UV beams emitted upon the samples and its absorbed values were detected by sensors eventually provides the wavelength from 200nm to 800nm in Ultra visible
Due to the nature of , two components are required to have a functional solar energy generator. These two components are collector and a storage unit.Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Why people are not implementing solar passive techniques, in fact of being aware of it’s advantages ? Why is solar architecture not being incorporated in Punjab even when the government is providing the sufficient funds? How energy consumption has become the need of an hour?
(Fossil fuel power plants also generate electricity by first creating steam to drive a turbine.) The main applications of solar thermal energy at present are the pool heating, domestic water heating and space heating of the building. What Time Is It Songs - kids learning English To this end, the general practice is to use solar-dishes sensors with fixed orientation (position). When space heating is the main consideration, the highest efficiency with fixed flat-plate collector is achieved if it faces south and slopes at an angle to the horizon equal to the latitude plus 15 degrees. Solar energy Solar collectors fall into two general categories: nonconcentrating and
This slight variation may be due to variation in the energy gap of the material. Through optical study, it is observed that with an increasing dopant concentration, band gap value decreases and emission band values are shifted. This shift in PL spectra may be due to imperfection in interfacial region, dangling bonds or stoichiometries defects of nanocrystalline
The graph is plotted having 4sinӨ along x-axis and βcosӨ along y-axis for the peaks of CdO with cubic phase. Consequently, the slope and y-intercept of the fitted time represent grain size and strain respectively. Thickness of the thin film samples determined by stylus profilometer was found to increase upto 1.6 µm for a precursor solution volume of 20 ml and then decreased to 1.3 µm for a volume of 25 ml. The reason for the decrease may be due to peeling of the film with the agglomerated powdery deposits due to homogeneous reaction. The number of crystallites per unit area (n) of the samples was found using the relation n= t / D3 (4) Where D is the grain size and t is the thickness of the
In the late 70’s Herbert Gleiter’s research opened the way to a new area of materials science by synthesizing a new class of solids named Nanocrystalline Solids. A Nanocrystalline solid differs a lot when compared with the same solid but in larger crystal form. Example : Nanocrystalline Silicon can provide efficient light emission while Bulk Silicon cannot. Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals i.e, the crystal size of these are typically 1 to 10 nanometers. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures.
Upon closer inspection, 5 distinct bands could be deduced from the photo. This is largely coherent with the other bands seen in the other lanes, with a clear reference done to lanes 1, 2, 12, 13, 14. The possible explanations as to why the other bands could not be seen distinctly in the other lanes is probably due to the genomic DNA being treated with too much phenol and chloroform, thus contaminating it. A pure sample should contain a ratio of around ~1.8 when compared to the absorbance ratio at 260nm and 280nm. Also, the concentration used for the Gel Loading buffer may be too little, such that when electrophoresis occurs, the gel is not able to fully submerge the DNA, leading to diffusion of DNA, which could be seen in lanes 7, 8, 9, 17, 18 where the bands exists as blurred smeared
A thin film has at least one small dimension, usually the thickness, and a lower density than bulk materials. Many of the thin-film properties, such as resistivity, dielectric constant, thermal expansion coefficient and refractive index, are dependent on the thickness. The deposition processes will also have an influence on the properties of the film. 1.2.1 Physical Vapor Deposition The principle of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) consist of the ejection of material from a solid target, transportation of this material in vacuum to the substrate surface and finally deposition as a thin film. Ejection is achieved by resistive heating, electron beam heating, ion bombardment or laser beam bombardment (also called laser ablation).