CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS: After successful extraction of phospholipids from their source analysis can be performed for the detection of specific phospholipids. This section will discuss chromatographic methods used for the analysis of phospholipids. All systems of chromatography consist of a stationary and mobile phase. A monster placed on a stationary phase, i.e., a solid or a liquid, and the mobile phase, a gas or a liquid, is allowed by modifying the system. The components of the sample will be separated on the basis of their ranging physical and chemical properties, imparting different affinities for the two phases.
Abstract Gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an important technique which is used for the analysis of mixtures. In these instruments the mixture allows mixtures the instrument allows mixtures to separate in each components and determine the amounts of components present in sample. By using GC and HPLC we can analyzed a very small (microliters) sample. The sample which we want to analyze by GC must be volatile. The vaporized sample is allowed to flow in along tube having a porous material called column.
Introduction Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase. The various constituents of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to be separated. In fact, the separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases . Chromatography may be preparative or analytical.
Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement and interpretation of spectra due to interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter which is absorbed or emitted by atoms of a sample. This absorption or emission occurs when the atoms of the sample move from one energy level to another in presence of light. In other words, it is a science which deals how light interacts with matter. When atoms or molecules absorb electromagnetic energy, the incoming energy promotes the molecular system to a higher energy level. Electrons are promoted to higher orbitals by ultraviolet or visible light, vibrations due to infrared light and rotations due to microwaves.
Silica gel [James .C. Bolyan, 1994] Silica gel is a granular, vitreous, and porous form of the silicon dioxide which is synthetically obtained from the sodium silicate. Silica gel contains a non porous silica micro structure suspension inside a liquid. Most application gel should be dried. Fig: 30.
Aim The purpose of this experiment was to use fractional distillation technique to separate cyclohexane and toluene. Background Information Distillation is a technique which is used for separating two or more volatile products based on differences in their boiling points. Distillation can be used to separate a volatile solvent from a non-volatile product and separate a volatile product from non-volatile impurities. Simple distillation consists of a round-bottom flask, a distilling head, a condenser, an adapter and a receiver which are used to separate compounds where one is considerably more volatile than the other compound. This distillation is performed in one step.
Introductory Questions Define SPE and explain the role of each of the steps used to prepare the SPE cartridge for the isolation of the analyte. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is an extraction method that uses a liquid and solid phase to isolate a single analyte or a specific type of analyte from a solution. It is usually used to clean up a sample before using a chromatographic or other analytical method to quantify the amount of analyte(s) in the sample.
Zeinab Ossaili - 7654795 Synthesis Lab – Experiment 1: Separation By Distillation The objective of this experiment is: • To use simple distillation to purify liquids. • To experience the limits of simple distillation when it comes to separations. • To use fractional distillation to separate mixtures of liquids. Method used: Distillation 1 – Distillation of an organic liquid containing a non-volatile coloured impurity • The distillation apparatus was assembled in regards to the instructions given and this was done by setting up the heating mantle followed by the round bottom flask, the reduction adapter, still head, thermometer adapter and finally the thermometer. • After the above was assembled the still head was connected to the condenser which had the tubing connected to allow water in and out.
a mobile phase and a stationary phase depending on the partitioning value. The mobile phase includes the solvent and the stationary phase includes the column in which the solvent is immobilized. The techniques mainly depend on adsorption, partition, ion exchange or molecular exclusion. The analyte is in equilibrium between the two phases and the distribution depends on the partitioning coefficient. Amobile
On a glass slide, 1 drop of distilled water was placed. Then, a loop-full of culture was transferred on the slide and it must be spread. It is then allowed to dry. Then, the smear must be heat fixed by exposing it to flame for few times until it got fixed. It is to prevent the cell from washing away during the staining and washing process.