CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS: After successful extraction of phospholipids from their source analysis can be performed for the detection of specific phospholipids. This section will discuss chromatographic methods used for the analysis of phospholipids. All systems of chromatography consist of a stationary and mobile phase. A monster placed on a stationary phase, i.e., a solid or a liquid, and the mobile phase, a gas or a liquid, is allowed by modifying the system. The components of the sample will be separated on the basis of their ranging physical and chemical properties, imparting different affinities for the two phases.
5.2.3 Incorporation of Emulsion into Gel base For preparation of emulgel, the obtained emulsion was mixed with gel in 1:1 ratio with gentle stirring. During mixing of emulgel, glutaraaldehyde was mixed to obtain the emulgel (Figure 5.1). Fig 5.1: Flow chart for preparation of Emulgel 5.3 OPTIMIZATION OF AZATHIOPRINE LOADED EMULGEL Various process variables like gelling agent concentration, oil and emulsifier concentration which could affect the preparation and properties of emulgel were identified and studied. 5.3.1 Effect of varying Gelling Agent concentration Emulgel was prepared using varying concentration of gelling agent via 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 gm while keeping other variables constant by method reported in section. The effect of varying gelling agent concentration on viscosity and drug content are reported in Table 5.1 and shown in Figure 5.2 and 5.3 respectively.
The retention factor for each dye was calculated. F or each of the Kool-Aid flavors, 2.0 g was weighed out from the packet and 5mL of water was mixed in with them each. mL of 0.1% NaCl solution was added to 100mL of bottled water. The six chromatography strips
a mobile phase and a stationary phase depending on the partitioning value. The mobile phase includes the solvent and the stationary phase includes the column in which the solvent is immobilized. The techniques mainly depend on adsorption, partition, ion exchange or molecular exclusion. The analyte is in equilibrium between the two phases and the distribution depends on the partitioning coefficient. Amobile
The setup for the cation exchange chromatography is shown in Figure 3. This was done by plugging the bottom of a burette with a small amount of glass wool. The wool was lightly packed using a thermometer. Approximately 5 mL of Dowex 50 cation exchange resin was obtained in a small beaker, and the resin was mixed with 5 mL of pH 3 citrate buffer. This mixture was poured into the burette with the stopcock closed.
Abstract Gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an important technique which is used for the analysis of mixtures. In these instruments the mixture allows mixtures the instrument allows mixtures to separate in each components and determine the amounts of components present in sample. By using GC and HPLC we can analyzed a very small (microliters) sample. The sample which we want to analyze by GC must be volatile. The vaporized sample is allowed to flow in along tube having a porous material called column.
Aim The purpose of this experiment was to use fractional distillation technique to separate cyclohexane and toluene. Background Information Distillation is a technique which is used for separating two or more volatile products based on differences in their boiling points. Distillation can be used to separate a volatile solvent from a non-volatile product and separate a volatile product from non-volatile impurities. Simple distillation consists of a round-bottom flask, a distilling head, a condenser, an adapter and a receiver which are used to separate compounds where one is considerably more volatile than the other compound. This distillation is performed in one step.
Introductory Questions Define SPE and explain the role of each of the steps used to prepare the SPE cartridge for the isolation of the analyte. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is an extraction method that uses a liquid and solid phase to isolate a single analyte or a specific type of analyte from a solution. It is usually used to clean up a sample before using a chromatographic or other analytical method to quantify the amount of analyte(s) in the sample.
Another 5-mL test tube, labelled as B, was filled with 1 mL of distilled water. A drop of methyl red was added. Also, a 0.01M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was added in a dropwise manner from a syringe until the color of the solution matches that of the first test tube setup. The volume of the HCl used was recorded for the determination of the ionization constant of
Experiment 4: Formal Report Preparation and Recrystallisation of Aspirin Aim of the experiment: In this experiment, a pure sample of aspirin is to be obtained through esterification to synthesise the sample, then purify the sample by recrystallisation. Lastly, determine the melting point of the sample to characterise the aspirin. Introduction: Background Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is an aromatic compound that contains an ester- functional group and a carboxylic acid- functional group. Aspirin is commonly used as a pain reliever (analgesic), an anti-inflammatory, an anti-coagulant (prevent platelet aggregation) and an antipyretic (to reduce fever) pill. It helps to prevent strokes, heart attacks and blood clot formation.