Thinking Map Literature Review

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction Thinking maps is a programme that use eight types of thinking maps (circle, bubble, double-bubble, tree, flow, multiflow, brace and bridge maps) as graphic organizers and help to build up the higher order thinking skills to improve students reading and writing skills. (Smith, Nancy Cook, 2008) The students will generate ideas from the thinking maps. According to Long, Daniel (2011), the thinking maps is special in a way guide students to construct a new knowledge about a topic and at the same time recalling student’s previous knowledge. Gallagher, Margie Lee (2011) mentions that thinking maps are visual tools that help students organize their thought and improve their thinking and writing.…show more content…
When practicing the i-Think maps, learners get the idea and keywords to write. Eppler (2006) claims that the maps shown the positive effects on students learning in many kinds of conditions in the classroom. The pupils feel more motivate when they can start to improve their writing.They become more confident in writing. As a result, thinking maps encourage pupils to love writing in English. Paxman, Christina G (2011) claims that the students that use the mapping will be more prepare in speech and become more confident in the stage performance. 2.2 Related Previous Research Cooks, Jamal (2014) points out that the thinking maps are effective to the student’s writing skills in his research. Cooks had tested 8 students and found that the average scores of the post test have increased. The thinking maps make the idea of writing become more systematic. Hence, the students can easily write out the sentences in the essay. It justifies the orderly of the thinking maps help to improve the writing skills. In a study carry by Sunseri, Anita Bennett (2011), she believe that the thinking maps has potential to improve students writing even though that is no significance result in her study. The thinking maps benefit the students by organizes their thoughts so that they can write effectively. 2.3 Related Theory 2.3.1 Constructivism learning…show more content…
The higher order thinking skills is a concept learning based on the Bloom’s Taxonomy which included remember, understand, apply, analyze, create and evaluate. According to Taft, Mary M (2015), higher order thinking skills (HOTS) make sure that students able to gain the knowledge, apply and synthesize it, make it become creative. The usage of the thinking maps make students applying the higher order thinking skills in the learning process. Students become critically and creatively thinking in solving
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