Many Enlightenment philosophers believed that government’s job is to well take care of all of its citizens, not just people with power or who are important for the government. This is where modern democracy came from. In modern days, many of the countries in the world are democracy. The Enlightenment brought political modernization to the West, introducing democratic values and institutions and the creation of modern, liberal democracies. John Locke, one of the most influential philosophers during the Enlightenment, based his governance in social contract theory.
In this regard, the national government allows amendments of the constitution based on political transformations and conditions, which is consistent with democratic ruling as shown by Wilson & Dilolio (2011). On the other hand, the states are allowed to make policies that are watched over by the federal government to ensure consistency with U.S constitution. Hence, both governments enable the political sphere to evolve. Thirdly, the citizens allow federalism to form the American political behavior. Citizens are marked as strong factors of change in the political field through their voices (Rasinski, 1988).
Influence of Enlightenment Philosophy There comes a time where man must not mindlessly follow their current government and way of thinking. The time arises were men must create change and birth innovative ideas on how their society and government should function, the Enlightenment was one of such times. The Enlightenment was a period of time where man began to question his government, and to try to reform it. The Enlightenment gave rise to great philosophers who can be considered as trailblazers, going ahead of the Framers and laying out the basis for a new kind of government. The Framers drew heavily on the ideals of the enlightenment when drafting the U.S Constitution.
The contributions of John Locke in our society affect the way we value life. (www.biography.com) He was born on August 29, 1632 in Wington, Somerset, England. Both his parents were Puritans and he was raised that way. In 1647, he enrolled at Westminster School in London, were he earned the distinct honor of being named a kings scholar. His father was a country lawyer and military man who had served as a captain during English Civil War.
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) came into office. Roosevelt immediately took action. He convince Congress to pass laws so the U.S. could recover. These laws consisted of things so people could find employment and agricultural and industrial production could start up again. Roosevelt created the New Deal which was a series of programs and projects that gave people jobs, give relief to those in need, and stabilize the community.
It is a constitutional democracy which prioritizes consensus and the authority of their citizens (Mengenal Sistem Demokrasi Indonesia). One of the most significant and brilliant periods of Indonesia’s democracy was the democracy under the rule of Suharto, called the “New Order”. The history of New Order consisted of the development of Indonesia under Soekarno, the milestone of New Order, policy of Indonesia under New Order, highlight of New Order, weakness of New Order, the dictatorship of New Order, and the collapse of New Order. The development of Indonesia under
Democracy is a necessity to a nation that has been constructing the order of the state and the political system. Essentially democracy is just a tool for a nation to achieve the goal of the nation, because democracy is also the process of every aspect of the nation and state life that has been accommodate and then develop to become the constitutional base and the nation way to build the people. Therefore democracy has to be understood as a whole piece of the constitution and political history of the nation. In a journey of a nation, the phenomena of democracy development can be use as a benchmark of the dynamics development of the constitution, law, and politics of the nation. Realizing the growth of the democracy we can see it from the historical phenomena of the nation journey and also the growth of the political and law system of the nation.
The process of modernization and democratization was initiated by the Third King of Bhutan Jigme Dorji Wangchuck (October 27, 1952 – July 21, 1972) within increasing internal and external political complexity. Therefore, democratization in Bhutan has been beginning with legal reforms such as the abolition of slavery, National Assembly, Royal Advisory Council and Five Year Plan. National Assembly play vital role in the field of involving people’s participation in decision making. The first political reform taken by His Majesty was the establishment of Tshogdu, the National Assembly, in 1953 creating a representative form of government and making Bhutan a constitutional monarchy. During his reign the country was isolated and there was zero development taken place.
Is existing voting system reflect the will of public? To answer these questions, it is necessary to give the definition of democracy. According to the explanation given by Oxford dictionary, democracy is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. To make it not so abstract and easier for further discussion, we quote the definition from Prof. Larry Diamond from Stanford University: A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections. Hence, the characteristics of electoral system of a country can effectively reflect its degree of democracy.