Where as in In 1985, General Instruments converted their Microelectronics Division to Microchip Technology. In 1993, Microchip Technology launched the 8-bit PIC16C84 with EEPROM which could be programmed using serial programming method. The improved version of PIC16C84 with flash memory (PIC18F84 and PIC18F84A)
• They are much less expensive than the mainframes. • Their invention was possible because of the invention of core memory technologies and transistors. • Minicomputers can give parallel access to up to 100 users. Hence they were used in places such as business organizations for maintaining billings and finances. • Some of the very first companies to manufacture the minicomputer systems were Hewlett Packard, DEC and Data General.
Up till 20th century, the scientists were dabbling in the design and efficiency of computers and as a result, computers became smaller by size, faster by speed and cost-effective as well. The generations of the computer help us to understand how computers evolved from a calculating device to present day artificial intelligent systems. First Generation computers are usually described as starting with the delivery of commercial computer. The main feature of this generation
MICROARCHITECTURE OF PENTIUM 4 Figure 1: Basic microarchitecture block diagram Pentium 4 A fast processor requires balancing and tuning of many computer architecture features that complete a microprocessor to perform at its peak. Figure 1 shows the basic Intel NetBurst microarchitecture of the Pentium 4 processor. As shown in the diagram, there are four main sections: the in-order front end, the out-of-order execution engine, the integer and floating-point execution units, and the memory subsystem. In Order Front End The in-order front end is the part of the processor to fetch the upcoming instructions to be executed in the program and prepares them to be used later in the machine pipeline. It plays a role to supply a high-bandwidth stream
(Rouse, Laptop Computer, 2008) Advantage of Laptops Portability - Laptops provide us the components that occupied by a desktop combined into a portable unit that easy for us to move freely from place to place. Laptops are more convenient to use when working while moving, at a different table or away from our company and office. In terms of weight and size, laptops are more portability than desktops. (Nield, 2017) Smaller in size - When the first computer was newly invented, the size was greater than a room, As the technology nowadays are well developed, the performance of the laptops is getting better as well as decreasing in size. If we do the comparison between desktops and laptops, we will find that the size of the desktops are much more bigger than the laptops and the laptops are smaller and easier to move from place to place.
There were probably a many universities and research centers exploring computer compositions. A large mainframe was build for a typical research center and these were shared among various composers and researchers by logging on at time. After days of text entry, it might take hours to compile the sounds onto tape or hard drive. Through digital to analog conversion, the file read off the computer tape and finally the composer could hear his fruitful results of his labor. Most of the research papers were started publishing in the Computer Music Journal or The Journal of the Audio Engineering Society and these papers were shared at International Computer Music Conferences, which began in 1974.
Under different conditions, it becomes clear which shines brighter as the better alternative to the other. But like our smartphones nowadays, it’s best to start small. With their introduction in the late 20th century, computers are probably one of the most useful and complex tools known to man. With the ability to perform many different inputs every second, they can quickly produce many forms of data and even access a larger pool of information globally. Since
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the design of digital processer and application specific system Digital arithmetic operations are very important. Floating Point Arithmetic and logic Unit in Digital System FPGA implementation has been the most widely researched area in recent years separately and together. Separately many new architectures of ALU implementation have been proposed. As far as floating point unit or DSP block is concerned, it has been one of the most complex units for implementation on FPGA. But with the help of VHDL these implementations have become very easy now a day.
The computer process a huge amount of data, and locate patterns and hidden rules in the data. These rules and patterns are numerical in nature, and they can be simply processed and defined by a computer. The computer would then be able to utilize those standards to
The small integrated circuits meant that transistors could be placed on silicon chips, which drastically improved not only the speed but the efficiency of the computer too. It was also the first generation of computers that no longer used punch-cards as an input, but keyboards instead. This meant that print-outs were replaced by monitors, which were easily accessible through the advent of Operating Systems, and allowed the device to run many programs and applications at one time with a central program which monitored the