But for an individual to adopt a practical moral objective, it has to be something more coherent. There is a lot to like about maximizing long-term happiness. But who should be responsible for whose happiness? One natural answer is that one should be responsible only for those the happiness of whom they can directly experience. It leaves out essentially everyone other than the self.
He believes that pleasure is different from happiness. Pleasure and pain is how we learn and grow. Pleasure is an activity and a good but not THE good, it is also a mean and an end, but it isn’t THE end; Happiness is the only end. Pleasure helps you reach happiness but pleasure itself is not happiness. It is a fulfillment of actions, and once you reach happiness you cannot lose it, but you CAN lose
Correspondingly, the excessive amount of happiness may suppress the appreciation for other feelings. Many people hide their true emotions with a facade of happiness. They feel as though being happy is better than letting any other feelings come to the surface. This is not to say that all positive emotions or happiness is to be omitted from your feelings. According to Susan David, she wants people to keep “the pursuit of happiness in perspective,” but she also wants people to see “negative emotions in a new and more accepting light,” (Don’t Worry Be Gloomy).
Moreover, those points are just not persuasive enough for people to really believe in themselves. Even though we can act with virtue while knowing about it, we can still practice it to make the world a better place. We can act virtuously to lead by example for society so that others will try to be more virtuous also. What I mean by this is that we can try to make people better people that will make them happy. People being naturally conceded also is not persuasive because everyone has different personalities, meaning that nobody is truly the same.
Other things also play a role, as Aristotle recognizes: “happiness obviously needs the presence of external goods as well” (I 8 1099a30); and “[good fortunes] are required as complementary to a fully human life” (I 10 1100b5). In the next paragraphs, I will explain what Aristotle means by this. External goods are goods external to oneself, that fall outside what we can completely control. For instance: friends, political power, wealth, high birth or children. On Aristotle’s account, some external goods are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for happiness.
What exactly is happiness and how does one go about spreading happiness it to others? A man by the name of John Stuart Mill seems to be able to give us some answers to these questions. Mill starts our inquiring journey with defining what utilitarianism stands for. In short he states that it is the construction of utility, which claims that the actions that stimulate happiness in is morally fit and vice versa to be unfit. Happiness is something that we want for itself, it is considered to be the ‘ultimate end’.
Kant always emphasized that everyone should be treated freely and equally. He emphasizes that everyone should be treated valuable and not be used to benefit others. He sets a fine line though saying he does not want people not be used at all, but if they are in the situation where they are that they should be treated just like you would want to be treated. What he tried to emphasis on the duty theory is that it is not only about doing the right thing. Immanuel Kant tries very hard to put morality out there on how human beings should be treated and his theory can be seen as absolutely amazing.
He believes that we are all created equal and by virtue of the laws of nature and justification, we have the right to exercise our force and align our resources to ensure we thrive in the best conditions possible. His development of the social contract theory and the formation of civil polities is based on the realization that as time changes, an individual man’s resources become lesser than the force required to sustain his life in the state of nature. Since man cannot create new force, the only way to ensure to ensure peaceful co-existence is to pool forces and resources and establish a unit of control of the balance between the rights and responsibilities of the people through a social
It is important to experience other emotions aside from happiness because negative emotions can stimulate the mind just as well as happiness. If a person manages to live their life without experiencing any negative emotions, there may never be a genuine appreciation for happiness. When someone lacks happiness, happiness is strived and worked for greatly. As previously stated, happiness is the key to a long and healthy life; so, the ultimate goal is to eliminate anything that interferes with the goal of happiness. Marin E.D.