In addition, he believes that “we just have to check that the act we have in mind will not use anyone as a mere means, and, if possible, that it will treat other persons as ends in themselves” (O’Neil, 2008, p. 113). This principle acts as a moral code implying that one should never treat a person merely as a means to an end. Overall, Kantian ethics focuses and recognizes the importance of the value of humanity. His categorical imperative ultimately leads to a “kingdom of ends,” in which norms that deny the value of humanity are not permitted. In my opinion, it would be difficult to disagree because most individuals value their own life.
When a society develops, it will become necessary for a government to compensate for the eventual defect of moral virtue in individuals. However, as this is what is necessary for government to supply, that is the extent the government should be involved according to Paine. The freedom and security of a society is the aim of a government, aims which should not be overstepped. This concept of limiting government to its intended purpose is seen most clearly in the libertarian movement in modern times. Libertarianism is still keenly influenced by Paine’s anti-Federalists sentiments within this paper simply applied to modern issues.
According to him, the government has an obligation to serve the people, by protecting their life, liberty and property. At the same time, and also mentioned some limitations on the powers of the government. He was in the favor of a representative government and also in the rule of law. Lots insisted that in case the government fails to protect the rights of the individuals, then the people should rise in revolt. According to Locke, the main principles of his philosophy have been expressed in his work titled, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding that was written by him in 1690.
They will not be able to value themselves or their lifestyle. John Galt was definitely right. If an individual does not choose to make a decision of how they are going to live, then he does not hold his life as a value. Choices are important and if a person does not make one, good or bad, you are choosing to let accomplishment slip by. The values one holds for themself shows the type of person they want to
It is difficult for an individual to find value in their role if they base success off of society’s standards because standards are often unattainable. Most importantly, however, society’s standards are materialistic, and materialism by nature is unfulfilling
They came up with contradicting conclusions about morality. One of it was their stand about moral rules in the way which different communities also govern its people in different ways. For me, an example of which is that (The way how ‘community X’ govern its people is way too different with the way how ‘community Y’ govern its peo-ple; therefore the way how ‘community X’ govern its people is not and will never be applicable in the ‘community Y’). Sophists also believe that moral rules are unnatural because the Sophists noticed that people only obey the moral rules for the fact that they can only be judged afterwards if they would not follow it. My example for this theory is that: (The government said that piracy is a crime and that people must not commit this mistake, meanwhile, some people doesn’t really want to obey it but because of the fact that they would be put into jail for this crime then they would come up with the decision to just follow the moral rule, morality in this sense is really unnatural.)
Below some of Marx criticism of this idea by different scholars in discussed. “Both Marx and Hegel agree that the separation of the state from civil society is a paradox that needs to be resolved. However, Marx rejects Hegel 's explanation that puts an institutional order between the state as ethical agency and civil society as the sphere of private interests. Marx 's views, then, are in contrast to Hegel 's in explicitly seeking to resolve the state-society separation on the level of society as the true reality of human beings. Marx sought to realise 'the essence of socialised man ' in what he called a 'true democracy”.
THE TEMPEST: POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY ON SHAKESPEARE’S LAST PLAY Political Philosophy is a wide branch of philosophy that focuses statements and arguments involving political opinion. It is all about state, politics itself, liberty, justice and the idea of authority. It tackles the meaning of government, what makes a government just, the freedom of its underman, duties of the citizens and other political stuff. This type of philosophy is being practiced since it was discovered and has two reasons. First is the method and approach the philosopher and second is the philosopher 's agenda that made him came up with the methods he used.
The ancient is seeking the good life, right order and supporting virtue while the modern philosophers are concerned with peace and order. The moderns’ numerous theories undermine the purpose of government and reduce politics to power. Hobbes preserves that the purpose of the government is to keep up peace and order. In addition, he suggests the ruler should be a sovereign who has supreme power, which is a power of the people. The state of nature creates a paradox where people move from complete liberation to an wholly sovereign submission.