John Locke John Locke was born on August 29, 1632, in Wrington, England. Locke was an english physician and philosopher. He went to University of Oxford. He had this mentor called Robert Boyle who was a relevant scientist. He took the decision to study medicine in England.
Hobbes was hired by the Cavendish family to tutor the Earls of Devonshire. While working for the Cavendish family, Hobbes wrote his famous book Leviathan. In this book he discussed the idea of ‘state of nature’ which is the concept that man without rule is chaos. His idea that monarchy is the only logical form of rule was influenced by his surroundings. Locke, Hobbes’s opposing philosopher, was born years later on August 29, 1632, in Wrington, Somerset, England.
Emboldened by the revolution in physics commenced by Newtonian kinematics, Enlightenment thinkers argued that reason could free humankind from superstition and religious authoritarianism that had brought suffering and death to millions in religious wars. Also, the wide availability of knowledge was made possible through the production of encyclopedias, serving the Enlightenment cause of educating the human race. The age of Enlightenment is considered to have ended with the French Revolution, which had a violent aspect that discredited it in the eyes of many. Also, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), who referred to Sapere aude! (Dare to know!)
This essay will focus on portraying the grounds on which Locke is considered a modern liberal constitutionalist, taking into account his major works, A Letter Concerning Toleration(1689) and The Second Treatise of Civil Government(1689). Locke examines life without a civil government and then he effectively explicates how a civil government can be created and maintained in a commonwealth in The Second Treatise of Civil Government(1689). He considers the period before the existence of civil government as a “state of nature”, where nobody is considered inferior or superior and where this sense of equality fosters great maxims of justice, charity, mutual love and the duties that people owe one another. It is a state where there is no common political power as such. The civil government is created due to the disturbances in the state of nature which has surfaced because of the tremendous rise in population, decrease in available resources and
Considering an extraordinary influential work arguing about despotism gives the answer for the first question. This was originally not written in English, but in French. L’Esprit des Lois (The Spirit of Laws) , written in 1748 and translated into English by a travel writer Thomas Nugent in 1750, gives us two clues in elaborating “anti-despotism”. First, he reclassified the form of government and divided it into three categories, namely, despotism, monarchy, and aristocracy. The traditional argument deriving from Aristotle divided it into monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy.
Being able to understand without guidance 3. To have a rational approach of thinking and questioning One must study Burke’s actions and speeches to conclude whether he was indeed an enlightened thinker. There is no better case study for us to consider, for this purpose, then his persecution of Warren Hasting. The trial took more than a decade to reach its conclusion, and was a spectacle which would be remembered in the imperial history of Britain for a long time. In his book, ‘The reflection on the French Revolution’, Burke asserts his view on universal law very clearly.
Thomas Hobbes, (1588-1679), was a Philosopher, Scientist and Historian from Wiltshire, England. Following his graduation from the University of Oxford, Hobbes went to work as a private tutor for the young William Cavendish, son of the First Earl of Devonshire. Later William became a Member of Parliament and was accompanied by Hobbes to many debates. During this exposure Hobbes wrote a piece, which later was printed as The Elements of War, Natural and Politic. Although he did not expect the book to be published, it is known to be his first piece on Political Philosophy.
He took a traditional arts degree and developed an interest in maps. While attending the university he would tutor William Cavendish, he would do a lot of different things for their family, such as a translator, an account keeper, and a business representative. Hobbes became connected with the royalist side through his work for William. At a young age he was exposed to politics and was very interested. He became acquainted
These awakenings of ancient societies were mainly because of literature discoveries in Greek and Latin cultures. The documenting of ideas and theories influenced the history of man in different aspects including political, social, economics and cultural progressions. The divine right of kings was a political and religious doctrine used in early history by monarchs to assert that they had direct power from God to rule without earthy reproach. This was used to eliminate competition and criticisms from the public and the church about a monarch’s style of leadership. However, this practice was generally abandoned by many regimes by the end of the 19th century due to the revolutions that had taken place in major countries.
Absolutism in Western Europe Cont. Philosophical Justifications Bishop Jacques - Benign Bossuet (1627-1704) Defended “Divine rights of kings” Cited examples of old testament rulers divinely appointed by and answerable only to god. Argued that only god can judge the king King is the throne of god 1. Absolutism in Western Europe Cont. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Most original political philosopher of the 17th century Published his most influential work Leviathan which provided a philosophical justification for a strong central political authority.