Hobbes ' doctrine describes human in nature with respect to his desires. Humanly behaves according to aversion and appetite. If we ask why equality cause diffidence, Hobbes says all men desires the same thing. Moreover, he did not give any characteristic which provides to consider others during the steps which go to contract to the state. None the less, he mentioned three essential personal trade of savage men: free will, perfectibility and compassion.
He believes that without these contracts, man would be in a constant state of civil war. The contracts ensure that peace can be established between men with security of survival. Hobbes says that, “it is a contract, wherein one recieveth the benefit of life” (133). To put these contracts in effect, “one must give up [their] right of governing [oneself], to this man, or to this assembly of men” (158). Having a sovereign ensures the safety and security of all men through a “coercive power to compel men equally to the performance of their covenants by the terror of some punishment greater than the benefit they expect by the breach of their covenant” (137).
In his most well-known work Leviathan, Hobbes dictates that all humans are similar, they have same objective and adopt the same means of obtaining it. When he talks about the reasons why people want to create a legal state, he refers to the basic nature and behavior of humans. He mentions state of nature which is hypothetical condition of no-government. In the state of nature, every man would have whatever he could obtain by whatever means and property would be one’s own only as long as one could keep it. There is no restriction, no morality, no law in the state of nature, and people are consistently engaged in the “war of every man against every man”.
When there is a sign of a cry for help what is the first instinct one 's mind comes to? To deceive or to help others? There has always been a debate about the question of whether humans are naturally altruistic, helpful, or naturally egoistic, selfish people. Many believe that it depends on the situation where a person has a choice in being helpful or deceitful by considering a person’s ethnicity, personality, or circumstances. Altruism versus egoism has also lead down to conclusions allowing people to believe that is natural to be both selfish and helpful.
By deeming the collective population incompetent and likening their anti-governmental chatter to a plague, it is not a reach to assume Hobbes would not prescribe a right to revolution. He limits himself one exception - anything that would fall under someone acting out of self defense. If a subject were to feel that the actions of the sovereign put their lives in danger or served as threats towards their livelihoods, they retain the right to
We are born that way and are only taught how to be good as we grow. Our behaviors are constantly put into check by others, and if they weren’t, it would be a chaotic world. Humans would show more animalistic behaviors as they would need to survive be it killing, stealing, or just downright greedy. The human race is ultimately cruel, but is phased out with the sense of judgement as time progresses. Though it could be argued that Hobbes lacked in human psychology, his opinion of human nature and government left a great impression on others and the
Building on the previous point made about his perception of human passions being the main tool in the decision making process, Hobbes argues that individuals’ decision to enter society and ensure security is based on the ultimate aversion. It is more predominant than the ultimate appetite, so the fear of death is greater than the greed for power and a social contract is made where all men lose some of their individual power and submit their rights to the sovereign who therefore has the ultimate power in the society. This vast amount of power given to him by the people is very effective in making laws by which he doesn’t abide. In a society, everyone has to only obey and fear the sovereign now, which provides security to the people by protecting them from each other and creating a sense of trust among them. Since all decisions are made by one sovereign, this kind of structure enables immediate decision making and resembles an absolute monarchy, the most effective government regime according to
The state of nature is the condition under which man lived prior to the formation of state, where no person possesses political power. While Hobbes state of nature is ahistorical and is a hypothetical construct to help us grasp human nature in its purest form, Locke believes such a state has existed historically and that this is the state men are in naturally and will remain in until they decide to form a state. Firstly, Hobbes and Locke differ in what they describe people to be motivated by. According to Hobbes, people are self-serving and are motivated to maximize their achievements of good by power. Good refers to anything they desire; bad refers to anything they are averse to, instead of being based on impersonal moral principle.
Does this not reveal that humans by nature are distrustful of one another because, even when there are laws and armed public officers, he still fears that one of his fellow citizens will rob or attack him? Accordingly, Hobbes proposed a way to escape the State of Nature and live in a civil society: through the Laws of Nature and the contract