“Tabula Rasa Theory of Human Behavior.” describes that when born, the human mind is a blank state, with no rules. Experiences are formed as we are exposed to the world. Baron de Montesquieu wrote “The Spirit of Laws” to explain human laws and social institutions. Montesquieu also created the concept of separation of powers and checks and balances. This concept of separation of powers influenced James Madison when writing The US Constitution because it ensured that one branch of government could not gain more power than another.
That is because knowing yourself is akin to having self-control and when you have self-control you have virtue, and a virtuous person is a person who will do well as a politician because they will not be caring for what belongs to the state but rather the state itself. Just as we would be cultivating ourselves, namely, our souls, the politician would be doing the same for the state, which is the path Alcibiades will
Rand’s story ultimately leads to the conclusion that a society in which people lives collectivism is under strict planning and control. The collectivist society barred the individuals experience to develop their own thinking. Ayn Rand, introduces both cases to the narrative to show you the difference of both, but she ultimately believes that rational egoism is the way to live. Rational egoism cares oneself and promotes self interest. This is where Equality 7-2521 is freed from collectivism and introduced to a new political philosophy called rational egoism.
He is implying that men have a conscience for a reason. Man should use his conscience and decide for himself and not rely on the majority because they could be wrong. Spitz also agrees with Zinn and Thoreau that civil disobedience is necessary. His position is “… Under such circumstances, it may well be that obedience to democracy can best, and perhaps only, be served by disobedience to some laws.” In other words he is
Thomas Paine opposes the ideology of government, stating that, “Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil,” (Paine 3). Essentially, the purpose of government is to protect people from preforming vices, and defend their natural right to Locke’s ideology of life, liberty and property. Without government, coercion would occur, and destroy one’s ability to express their natural rights. For America, Paine believes that the establishment of a strong fundamental government could allow for the cohesion of citizens to form a society respected by other nations
Kant says to be free, we must behave rationally and choose autonomously, though that is not always the case. According to Kant, we act independently, which is performing autonomously and acting according to a law given by oneself. However, in a heteronomous manner, we will act upon incentives, for the sake of something else. He also says we are “sentient creatures,” capable of feeling pleasure and pain by responding to our senses and feelings. But are we free when we seek pleasure and avoid pain?
What does it mean to be a stoic? One philosopher answers this question. In the “Enchiridion,” we encounter Epictetus writing a law of sorts that dictates what is considered ethical stoic behavior. Stoicism in Epictetus view is simply being able to control our actions, but relinquishing the want or need to control what isn’t a product of our own actions. For Epictetus, some of the things that are in our control are our likes, opinions, and pursuits.
Similarly, these ideas were expressed earlier in this chapter through the misinterpretation and changing in the Kantian ideology regarding morally upstanding citizens. The true definition of Kant 's categorical imperative states that a person should "act as if the principle of your actions were the same as that of the legislator or of the law of the land" (Arendt, 136). But, Eichmann interpreted Kant 's categorical imperative to read "act in such a way that the Führer, if he knew your action, would approve it" (Arendt, 136). Firstly, this change in the interpretation illustrates how the Führer 's word was law, which allowed for Hitler to change the moral code of the Third Reich. Therefore, people, like Eichmann, believed they were morally upstanding citizens, because they acted in the way that the Führer would approve.
They have also maintained that the universal moral law can be understood by reason. Countering this position, the Sophists have argued that the moral laws are created by man based on circumstances and they have no independent objective existence. They vary from time to time and place to place and even from individual to individual. The Sophists are credited for bringing philosophy down from heaven to the dwellings of men.