Three Functions Of Vocatives

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Concerning the functions ,they state that there are three functions of vocatives which are the following ones :-

1-Getting someone’s attention.

26- Paul: Hi, Cathy! I've never thought I'd see you here.
Cathy: Hi, Paul. I was thinking the same thing about you.

2-Identifying someone as an addressee.
27- Michelle: Steph, what's a vowel?
Steph: Anything that's not a consonant.
Michelle: DJ, what's a consonant?
DJ: Anything that's not a vowel.

3-Maintaining and reinforcing social relationships.

(Biber et al., 1999: 1112) In the following example , the function of maintaining and reinforcing social relationships is clear by using the address terms which illustrate the social position of the speaker in this certain conversation by calling
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Anderson. You that you are special, that somehow the rules do not apply to you. Obviously, you are mistaken. …The time has come to make a choice, Mr. Anderson. Either you choose to be at your desk on time from this day forth, or you choose to find yourself another job. Do I make myself clear? Neo: Yes, Mr. Rhineheart. Perfectly clear.
So Vocatives in English can be used in two ways as positive politeness and negative politeness at the same
Watts (2003:16 ) indicates that there are statements that like "‘He always shows a lot of respect towards his superiors’, or ‘She's always very helpful and obliging’, or ‘She speaks really well’, or ‘He always opens doors for the ladies or helps them on with their coats’, etc. " He (ibid)states that that people have different views concerning the behaviour of person in general "some people feel that polite behaviour is equivalent to socially correct or appropriate behavior or it to be the hallmark of the cultivated man or woman".

And there are some " people who classify polite behaviour negatively, characterising it with such terms as ‘standoffish’, ‘haughty’, ‘insincere’,
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Shiina (2003: 58) states that there are three dimensions which deal with the vocative structures in relation to politeness .

1-The dimension of power deals with vocatives between equals and non-equals in status and social roles.
2-The dimension of solidarity refers to vocative use in terms of relationship which means the distance of the interlocutors’ relations .
3-The dimension contextual condition which refers both to the situational condition such as formal or informal condition on the one hand, and the emotional condition of the interlocutors such as admiration or contempt .
These three dimensions produce a three-dimensional model of politeness with reference to vocatives forms .
4- Description of Selection Data and Methodology The researcher will indicate the vocative forms which are manipulated in the novel " Emma " by Jane Austin . The first publication of this novel was in December 1815. This novel has been adapted by many television programs, stage plays , and several films . The researcher will apply an eclectic model which involves both

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