Furthermore, modal verbs show politeness and tentativeness in the English language. Examples of modal verbs are, might, may, could, can or shall (Simon, 2017). Using the same Donald Trump interview as an example, Donald Trump states at one point “I do. I get treated so badly. Yesterday, about the thing, you know when I said it’s a terrorism ... it may be.
Comparing Trump to past presidents also conveying a message that trump is lowering the expectations for future presidents. Throughout the three articles Pitts used these stylistic methods: colloquial, pathos, real life scenarios, and powerful closing sentence. To begin, Pitts uses colloquial in all three of the articles. Using colloquial or informal language gives a conversational tone to the articles it also makes the reader feel more comfortable with the author. For example, in Don 't Lower the Bar on Education-- “So I’m in college, right?” Pitts is asking the rhetorical question as if he was there talking to the reader.
Additionally, positive politeness strategies is defined as aimed “to save positive face by demonstrating closeness and solidarity, appealing to friendship, making other people feel good, and emphasizing that both speakers have a common goal” (Cutting, 2008, p. 48). Similarly, Yule (1996) emphasized the notion of solidarity as a positive politeness strategy by which the speaker tends to use positive politeness linguistic forms to reduce the distance and emphasize closeness; the main linguistic resources to achieve solidarity are the use of “personal information, use of nicknames, abusive terms, and shared dialect or slang expressions” (p.
Literally it means praise or admiration, but in meaning it is the opposite. The sarcastic and sneering tone of the speaker coveys the real sense. This is a device often employed in everyday speeches or public speech. Shakespeare employs ironical sentences in rhetorical speech of Mark Antony. By calling Brutus an honourable man through employing tonal shift in his language, Antony calls into question the honourability of Brutus.
Researchers measured three levels of generativity: behavioural, normative, and self-constructed. Behavioural generativity was designed to assess individuals’ expressions of care through the emotional support and unpaid assistance they provide to family members, friends, and others. Normative generativity denoted the sense of commitment participants felt to assist and care for those in need and to civic obligations at work and in the larger community. Self-constructed generativity implied concern for contributing to others, self-perceptions of possessing generative qualities (LGS), and self-perceptions of exemplifying care, wisdom, and knowledge. High levels of psychological well-being were observed in individuals who provided emotional support for several people; felt a civic obligation; expressed generative concern; described themselves as a generative resource; and those who possessed personality traits associated with generativity (Keyes & Ryff, 1998).
For example: Oh, you take a lot of notes like me, our hands will get hurt someday, I wonder if I can borrow your notebook as I missed something the professor had said? Here, there is a kind of a simple joke to soften the demand. 1.4.5 Negative Politeness Yule (1996, p.60-61) believed that negative politeness is a type of face saving act which show deference and a sort of humility affirming that one has awareness of the other’s wants and freedom, it may be include an apology. For example: could you bring me a cup of water, please? The word ‘please’ softens the request.
Being polite is vital to successful communication, nowadays. In accordance with Oxford dictionary, politeness is defined as “good manners and respect for the feelings of others”, however, in the field of linguistics, the notion of politeness is further complex and regarded as one of the most key terms to define. Linguists advocated that “politeness is […] a dynamic concept, always open to adaptation and change in any group, in any age, and indeed, any moment of time. It is not a socio-anthropological given which can be simple applied to the analysis of social interaction, but actually arises out of that interaction” (Watts, 2003). Over decades, this concept has received various amount of attention from many linguists with a large number of books, research and articles concerning politeness have been published.
Manners expressing politeness ” Good manners will open doors that the best education cannot.” (Clarence Thomas) A human-being is distinguished from brutes not on account of his intelligence alone but also on account of his behavior and manners. Expressing politeness means to be humble, courteous, respectful and well-cultured social behavior. A man or women, above everything else, is esteemed and distinguished on account of his or her good manners. Being polite also means being aware of and respecting the feelings of other people. We may not always notice politeness
According to Brown and Levinson (1987: 101), the linguistic realizations of positive politeness are common forms of the normal linguistic behavior between people that interact on habitual basis. Positive politeness can be embrace through functioning of claiming common ground, conveying that speaker and hearer are cooperators, and fulfilling hearer’s wants. These mechanisms constitute a wide range of strategies (illustrated in Figure 2) for the
Euphemism is an expression of politeness. As Allan and Burridge (1991 p.11) said that: ” Euphemism is used as an alternative to dispreferred expression, in order to avoid possible loss of face: either one’s own face or, through giving offense, that of the audience, or of