Three Stages Of Globalisation

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Globalization is now a near ubiquitous phenomenon. Indeed, it is one of the most over used phrases in the modern world. However, as most actors in the international policy domain recognize, it is a term that is not going to go away. Policy responses of state and non state actors alike are increasingly coming to terms with globalization. 'Globalisation ' is an essentially contested concept (Higgott, 1999) Globalisation needs to be understood as a varied process that is both material across economic, political, social and cultural domain and imaginative offering ideals of how the world might function (Baylis, 2006). We are in the 'third stage ' of the debate over the nature and impact of globalisation according to Higgott. Phase one saw globalisation as inescapable, with the traditional actor in international economic and political orders, the nation-state, reduced to the status of a diminished residual actor in the face of global imperatives. While phase two saw a backlash. Globalisation came to be seen as hyperbole. Little had changed after all, it was argued. Realist beliefs in the primacy of states in international economic and political affairs were reasserted. Phase three is more nuanced. There is something 'new ' that distinguishes the contemporary era from previous eras. Globalisation is a contingent, and also potentially reversible, process in which many state actors, international institutions, non-state actors, such as MNCs, Social Movements and NGOs play
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