The Act mandated equal but separate rail travel in Louisiana by forcing the railway to provide separate cars for its black and white citizens. It also gave railway officers the “authority to refuse to carry any passenger that refused to sit within their designated race”. (Medley, 2003) This Act incensed a group of eighteen elite black men and in September 1891 they came together to form the Comite` des Citoyens. The Comite`, also called the Citizens Committee for the Annulment of Act 111, opposed the Separate Car Act of 1890. They raised funds, held rallies, composed legal tactics, and decided to run two test cases.
8-Steptima Poinsette Clark-Born on May 3rd,1898 in Charleston,South Carolina,Steptima is another african american woman who helped African american get the rights to vote. Her father had been born a slave. Both of her parent heavely encouraged her to get a good eduation. After attending public shool,she attended Avery Normal Institude,a private school for african americans. She tried to be a teacher,but since Charleston did not hire african americans to teach it`s public schools,so instead she became a teacher at South Carolina`s Johns Island in 1916.
An example of a Supreme Court overturning, would be Plessy vs Ferguson. States from the south had laws that had a disadvantage for black people. Plessy who is a light colored black, decided to sit on the white section of the train, and declared his ancestry a couple of minutes after. People demanded him to move, but he refused. He was arrested for not moving.
In 1909, the NAACP started its legacy of fighting legal battles to win social justice for African-Americans. The most significant of these battles were won under the leadership of Charles Hamilton Houston and his student, Thurgood Marshall. Nathan Margold found that, the facilities provided for blacks were always separate, but never equal to the facilities provided for whites, violating Plessy’s “separate but equal” principle. Thurgood Marshall continued the Association’s legal campaign, and during the mid-1940s, in Smith v. Allwright, Marshall successfully challenged the “white primaries,” which prevented African Americans from casting a vote in several southern states. In 1946 Thurgood Marshall also won a case in which the Supreme Court ended
Coates believes that the problem is how Americans have historically defined the word “people.” Racism is caused by labeling people by their skin color because genetically everyone is the same. He tried to teach his son that there no such thing as “white” or “black.” He says that the way America thinks about race is false because Americans label people based on their color of skin or religion, which is wrong. He believes race is not a reality, it is something people have created. The “new people” in his writing are the whites. They have created a world based on superiority.
In both documents Brown vs Board of Education and Appeal to Congress for Impartial Suffrage arguments were made on what rights African Americans deserve. These documents are in different time periods but they both address the same issues. Except one is about the education of the African Americans and the other one is more broad and is about the rights that the Africans Americans deserve to get because they are apart of the American population. Brown vs. Board was significant in diminishing the "separate but equal" doctrine. It was a court case that took place in 1954 and discussed that African Americans should have the right to an education and they should not be segregated.
She was a girl that walked a mile to school every day even thought there was Sumner elementary (white school) nearest to her home like seven blocks away but it was only for white students. Linda 's father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused because his child is black (Watts and Roberson, Pg. 218). Brown decided to take the problem to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People willing to help the Brown family and filed their case happened in February 28, 1951.
Secondly, it is often argued that African Americans are necessary to get educational equality as whites. Base on the data from By Susan Berfield (2016), she revealed the fact that black students still do not receive an equal education in diverse schools. In her explanation, she gave an example about Fleming’s experience. Fleming lived with her husband and her three children. She decided to send her kids to elementary school in south Evanston.
Although the 1917 Supreme Court decision of Buchanan v. Warley ruled that ordinances for residential segregation were unconstitutional, white landowners began using formal deeds known as restrictive covenants to keep property from entering the hands of African-Americans. Those who violated these deeds were subject to lawsuits claiming damages from their neighbors. This practice remained widespread until the 1948, when another Supreme Court decision ruled that the practice was unconstitutional, in Shelley v. Kramer. (National Park Service, n.d.) In this
Even after slavery was over people of colored were still being treated unequal to the white people, they did not have the same benefits and rights that the white people had. Segregation and discrimination were still a thing, black people couldn’t use the same bathroom, classroom, and had to sit in the back of the bus. According to African American Odyssey “On July 26, 1948, President Harry Truman issued two executive orders. One instituted fair employment practices in the civilian agencies of the federal government; the other provided for "equality of treatment and opportunity in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin”. Rosa Parks also knew as the mother of the freedom movement ’actions contribute to the Civil Right Movement in a major way.