2.3 Types Of Frames Essay

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2.2.3 Types of Frames
News frames are defined as “conceptual tools which media and individuals rely on to convey, interpret and evaluate information” (Neuman et al., 1992, p. 60). Journalists may not automatically make use of frames to deliberately distort the facts of a story. However, what may appear to be small changes in the way a story is framed may greatly impact how readers understand the text. “The framing of the presentation of events and news in the mass media can thus systematically affect how recipients of the news come to understand these events” (Price, Tewksbury, & Powers, 1995, p.4). De Vreese (2005) identifies two types of news frame; issue-specific frames and generic frames. Studying issue-specific frames allow for a profound
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Semetko and Valkenburg (2000), later add one more frame commonly found in the media – the morality frame.
The conflict frame “emphasizes conflict between individuals, groups, or institutions as a means of capturing audience interest” (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000, p. 95). According to Neuman et al (1992), this frame is more frequently used in the media than any other. The conflict frame has been said to generate a mistrust of politicians and general cynicism among the public (Cappella, & Jamieson, 1997).
Semetko & Valkenburg (2000), say the responsibility frame “presents an issue or problem in such a way as to attribute responsibility for its cause or solution to either the government or to an individual or group” (p. 96). Iyengar (1991) argues that episodic frames tend to attribute responsibility on an individual or event, while thematic frames that show a larger picture, more often than not shift blame to the government or the social
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