Topic: Scottsboro Trials Sources: Remembering Scottsboro: The legacy of an infamous trial, The Trials of the Scottsboro boys, and Scottsboro and its legacy: The cases that challenged american legal and social justice. Thesis: The Scottsboro Trials were an important piece of history because it was a huge stepping stone of the civil rights movement and it showed the racial inequality in America which was then taken to the supreme court. (support statement) No crime in American history, produced as many trials, convictions, reversals and retrials as did the alleged gang rape of two white girls by nine black teenagers. (Supported Statement 2) If you were were alive or born between the times of 1931 through 1950 everything was “Contaminated” the air you breathed, the words you heard, the newspapers, no matter what it was during that time period you could not call America civilized. (supported statement 3) The Scottsboro trials opened a window on a time and place where the social norm weighed so heavily that the principles of law buckled and showed the injustice of America 's court system and America itself.
“Beginning in the late 1870s, Southern state lawmakers passed laws that required Whites and Blacks to attend separate schools and to sit in different areas on public transportation.” (“Jim Crow Laws” 1). People thought these laws were needed because “The Jim Crow system was undergirded by the following beliefs or rationalizations: whites were superior to blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior; sexual relations between blacks and whites would produce a mongrel race which would destroy America;” (“
As an example, “The famous lawyer, Thurgood Marshall, the man who had delivered the argument that resulted in the Supreme Court’s 1954 school integration ruling” (87). This example shows that since Melba wanted the integration to happen in Central High School, Thurgood Marshall gave Melba the power to become confidence to testify in the federal court. Another example is “The federal court hearing would be one of the most significant in history – a precedent-setting decision could be made that affected the while country (90). This example describes that Melba began to think that the federal court hearing is very important because it makes the community to know what are the court decisions about integration in Central High School. Another example is “I couldn’t stop worrying that they were going to make a decision that could affect the rest of my life, and I wasn’t getting to tell my side” (85).
Ferguson gave a ‘constitutional nod, to racial segregation in public places; foreclosing legal challenges against increasingly-segregated institutions throughout the South” (Plessy v. Ferguson). This explains that the verdict of the case slowed civil rights movements for a longer amount of time had Plessy v. Ferguson been decided differently. “The rail cars in Plessy notwithstanding, the black facilities in these institutions were decidedly inferior to white ones, creating a kind of racial caste society” (Plessy v. Ferguson).This illuminates that although the facilities of black and white people were separate they were not equal, creating tension.“After four decades…the Supreme Court has consistently ruled racial segregation in public settings to be unconstitutional”(Alex McBride).This shows that although Plessy v. Ferguson was not decided to benefit everyone it eventually made a change. Over all, Plessy v. Ferguson indirectly started something bigger than itself although being ruled differently in the
Racism is one of the most common problem around the world back then and even now, people judges people based on their skin color and to stop racism the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy has a very persuasive speech about this in June 11, 1963 followed by the event at Alabama, 2 young mens was disqualified to be the student at the University of Alabama because they were born Negro and there were a lots of cases like that in America so that’s why he give a speech about this serious problem, he wanted to stop racism before it get worse. The main idea of the speech is to stop racism and to tell everyone the colored skin people should be treated normal. The elements that make this speech effective is parallelism, ethos appeals, pathos appeals. The author uses a lots of parallelism in the speech and parallelism is a literary device in which parts of the sentence are grammatically the same, or are similar in construction. For example, John F. Kennedy says, “If an American, because his skin is dark, cannot eat lunch in a restaurant open to the public, if he cannot send his children to the best public
IT FOLLOWS THAT with education, this Court has made segregation and inequality equivalent concepts. They have equal rating, equal footing, and if segregation thus necessarily imports inequality, it makes no great difference whether we say that the Negro is wronged because he is segregated, or that he is wronged because he received unequal treatment... Chief legal council of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Thurgood Marshall (1908-93) spoke these words on 8 December 1953. Mr. Marshall argued some of the most successful cases for segregation in America before he knew their impact. During the 1940s and 1950s civil rights movement many changes occurred. Most of the changes involved segregation within the education
As a result of the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, The United States legislators wrote the Southern Manifesto in 1956. They believed that the final result of Brown v. Board of Education, which stated that separate school facilities for black and white children were fundamentally unequal, was an abuse of the judicial power. The Southern Manifesto called for the exhaust of all the lawful things they can do in order to stop all the confusion that would come from school desegregation. The Manifesto also stated that the 10th Amendment of the US Constitution should limit the power of the Supreme Court when it comes to these types of issues. 2.
The Civil Rights Movement arguably began around the early 50’s. The United States took their largest stride in the movement with the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown vs. the Board of Education. This decision deemed separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision started a revolution that would change America forever. Martin Luther King Jr. realized this, and preached a change that the African Americans have would force only through nonviolence.
For this reason, he was an early advocate for desegregation of schools. In 1850, he was especially outspoken in New York. While the ratio of African American to white students there was one to forty African Americans received education funding at a ratio of only 1 to 1,600. This meant that the facilities and instruction for African American children were vastly inferior. Douglass criticized the situation and called for court action to open all schools to all children.
This because of the nature of civil disobedience, the protestors cannot but win, if they stay true to the process. Almost no matter what the state enforce upon the participants they will look bad doing so. The media loves these stories and people in general loves it, but before and in the midst of these public actions we find two political struggles. Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 both influenced the integration of African Americans in the society. Brown v. Board of Education overturn the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, where the Supreme Court ruled in favour of stopping segregation of students in public schools.
er Awad Professor Muse SCMA 323: Business Law November 16, 2016 Brown vs. Board of Education: School Desegregation Brown vs Board of Education was one of the biggest cases ever brought upon the Supreme Court and on May 17, 1954, it was unanimously ruled that the segregation of races within public schools was unconstitutional. In fact, at the time of the case, over thirty three percent of public schools were lawfully segregated by race and the court had to decide between the racism within the United States. Dating back to the Civil War time, the United States declared its independence from England with a document known as the Deceleration of Independence; in this document it is stated “all men are created equal,” and this was definitely not
Broad education. Its decision created an atmosphere of confidence among black families who were worrying about the future of their loved children in the public education sector. The chief justice of the United State Supreme Court Mr. Earl Warren was clear about why the court voted for terminating segregation in the public schools. He stated, “Segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race deprives children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities, even though the physical facilities and other ‘tangible’ factors may be equal. The ‘separate but equal’ doctrine adopted in Plessy v. Ferguson has no place in the field of public education.” The court decision was a pivotal decision in the field of civil rights.
This was a landmark case in America. In 1954 the Supreme Court decided that “state laws making public schools separate for black and white students unconstitutional” (Mandell & Schram, pg. 482). This case over turned a prior case known as “Plessy v. Ferguson that allowed state-sponsored segregation in public schools” (McBride, 2006). This was acknowledged as one of the “greatest supreme court decision of the 20th century” (McBride, 2006).