The movement of the endocytosed protein which is destined for the apical surface to fuse with and also the movement of extracellular materials from one side of the epithelial cells to another can be termed as transcytosis. With respect to concept, transcytosis can be grouped into three processes namely; endocytosis, exocytosis and transcellular transport (Pravda,2011). Though transcytosis is tightly controlled by the cell it also has the potential for transepithelial movement of bacteria and other pathogens, hence it sometimes becomes an etiologic factor in the body(Pravda,2011). Trancytosis occurs in hepatocytes and this phenomenon is a typical example of transcellular transport . Here the apical membrane form bile and the basolateral membrane face blood.
Apoptotic cells can also be detected using hematoxylin and eosin staining, using light microscopy. Although this is a simple technique, it cannot detect apoptotic cells in early stages and the technique needs to be supplemented with other methods of detection. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is considered as the gold standard to confirm apoptosis. TEM can detect apoptotic bodies, phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies and nuclear fragmentation among other changes.
However this test has a low sensitivity where some individuals with low result would be considered to be deficient but show no clinical evidence of deficiency and conversely symptoms of deficiency can be seem when the result does not fall into the low range. There is a large ‘grey zone’ or ‘indeterminate range’ between normal and abnormal levels. In order to detect vitamin B12 deficiency, a more sensitive and specific screening test is required. Haptocorrin (HC) and transcobalamin (TC) are transport proteins for vitamin B12 . Transport of vitamin B12 to the tissues is brought about by TC.
Vascular disorders might also cause a bleeding. To get an accurate diagnosis, which is crucial for successful treatment, the haemostatic function has to be examined. The information about the haemostatic function can by gained using a number of laboratory tests to assess platelet and coagulation
They are proteins that are complexly folded to allow smaller molecules to fit into them; this active site is where substrate molecules bind. Enzymes must collide with one another at a precise position with enough activation energy. The active site must bind to the reacting molecule, or the substrate (1). Enzyme-catalyzed reactions require lower activation energy. The activity of an enzyme is affected by its environmental factors, and any change results in an alteration in the rate of the reaction caused by the enzyme (2).
Dosage forms usually are made up of the active compound and other ingredients known as excipients. Excipients can have many functions, they can act as fillers, lubricants, binders, preservatives and antioxidants. A change in the nature of the excipients can significantly affect the stability of the active ingredient as well as its release from the dosage form. Changes in the preparation (the way the compound is made) of the active compound like the use of a different solvent for purification, can affect its bioavailability (The fraction of the dose of a drug that is found in general circulation around the body. It is influenced by such factors such as Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination (ADME).
The thrombin also promotes platelet aggregation. The fibrin stabilizes the platelet aggregates forming a platelet-fibrin thrombus. The formation of this thrombus on the device is bad as it can block the flow of blood to crucial organs including the heart and it can have fatal consequences. Thrombus formation on artificial devices is the result of both platelet activation and
If there are defects in any one of these mechanisms the result is genomic instability. A few other things that can alter the regulation of the cell cycle are posttranslational modifications of histone tails, chromatin structure, and DNA methylation. This topic continues to be a debate about what exactly the driving force of the initiation
This process involves the polymerization and depolymerization with the hydrolysis of GTPs. The microtubule containing ADP-tubulin at the end is highly unstable and depolymerizes rapidly that is called “catastrophe” and the phenomenon is known as “dynamic
Others can overwhelm the body if applied in only one place, and are often cut into sections and applied to different parts of the body to avoid this, such as nitroglycerin. Many molecules, however, such as insulin, are too large to pass through the skin. Basic components of Transdermal drug delivery systems: 1. Polymer matrix: The mechanism of drug release depends upon the physicochemical properties of the drug and polymer used in the manufacture of the patches(17). These control the release rate of the drug from the patches.
The measuring levels of the immunoglobulins is one way of tracking the extent and progression of the disease. If the immunoglobin that is secreted from myeloma the normal immunogobulin will be suppressed. Liquid and solid bone marrow samples are examined under a microscope to test for myeloma. The smoldering multiple myeloma is a condition that involves the findings of abnormal plasma cells that produce a monoclonal protein, but no symptoms. Indolent multiple myeloma this type of myeloma have an elevated number of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow that may or may not produce monoclonal protein.
The correlations between phenotype and genotype have not yet proven, but most mutations of the ABCA12 genes are though to be core that leads to HI disease. Mutations of the ABCA12 genes are thought to lead to major loss of this protein functions because it effect the folding of the beta and alpha sheets in order to become functional proteins that is essential for lipids transport across the cell membrane to the epidermis layer of the skin. One other disease that is also associated with mutations of ABCA12 gene is lamellar ichthyosis (LI). This disease is the less severe version of HI, due to lower incidents of mutation in the affected genes. The mutated ABCA12 in LI can still make functional proteins that somewhat help with lipids binding across the outer skin layer.
Even though we cannot see cells without a microscope, they are the basic unit of life and they exhibit all of the characteristics of living organisms. They can exist individually, as do bacteria, or they may work together, taking on specialized tasks to create a more complex organism. However, all living organisms share certain characteristics, which are discussed below. Cells are made of cytoplasm.
Hypoxia can come in the form of an insufficient amount of blood supply (ischemia) which, in turn, causes an insufficient amount of oxygen to the body. It is seen that ATP becomes insufficiently produced with hypoxia and this is why ATP depletion is a common theme in cell injury or death. It is very important that
Also, a brown or tea colored urine can indicate that there is a larger amount of toxins in the blood such as myoglobin and CK which leads to rhabdomyolysis. When seeing by a physician, they may also ask if you have had a decreased amount of urine produced as well as muscle weakness and stiffness. These all are signs that point to rhabdomyolysis of the skeletal muscle. Tests that can be done to see if it is in fact rhabdomyolysis extend from testing the amount of CK in the blood as well as the levels of serum calcium and even urine myoglobin tests. A Urinalysis can also be used to see if you are effected by the disease.