There are three types of thyroid function tests. First, measuring the thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) level.6 (TSH) is produced by the pituitary gland and stimulates the thyroid gland to release hormones into blood. The normal (TSH) range is from 0.4 -4.0 milli-international units per liter (mIU/L), so the result of (TSH) test that shows a higher rate of this range is considered to be a hypothyroidism disorder and a lower rate is considered to be a hyperthyroidism.7 The second test is the measuring of bounded protein hormone (TT4), which is also known as thyroxin. (TT4) has an essential role in the growth and metabolism function.
Hormones are chemicals emitted by organs. Hormones are chemicals emitted by organs. They go through the circulatory system and influence target organs. Sexual advancement, the menstrual cycle and ripeness in women, and glucose levels, are altogether controlled by hormones. Homeostasis it is critical that the body 's inner surroundings are controlled.
MAPK, PKC and PI3K pathways are basically involved in the growth and the differentiation of neuronal cells. As flavonoids and polyphenols are known for modulation of these pathways, so it can be emphasized that flavonoids/polyphenols may exert the beneficial effect in the treatment of PD. The aim of present review is to demonstrate the role of the flavonoids and polyphenols in the treatment of the PD and the mechanism by which they exert beneficial effect. Key Words: Flavonoids; Parkinson’s disease, Basal ganglia; Dopamine; Substantia nigra Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) region of the midbrain (Dauer and Przedborski, 2003) (Fig.1).
The reproductive system is made up of the vagina, cervix, urethra, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. This paper will go in depth on these subjects. This paper will explain the function, details, and how to tell what is wrong. These reproductive systems are important to bring a healthy baby into the world. If any thing is wrong with any of these body parts something can go majorly wrong, which is why you need things such as pap smears.
The endocrine system is such an important system to the body because it functions the bodies use of hormones. The body uses many different hormones and the endocrine system regulates these. When the glands of the endocrine system secrete the hormones, the hormones are put into the bloodstream to be sent to the different parts of the body. The glands that comprise the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pineal gland which are all located in the brain, the thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus which are located in the throat, the adrenals and pancreas which are located in the body’s midsection, and the ovaries (female) and testes (male) which are located in the pelvic region. The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones.
It is characterized by the activation of biochemical pathways that lead to changes in cell morphology. These morphological changes include: cell shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Changes such as mitochondrial breakdown to release cytochrome c and the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner plasma membrane leaflet to the outer leaflet also occur. The changes that occur in the cell, act as signals of
ALA are present in significant amounts and composition in brain and visual tissues, DHA is the main component of the cell membrane phospholipid structure for nerve cells and cell membrane while EPA is an essential building block for eicosanoids, a localized hormone which is important in nearly every development in our body hence very vital for infants and children below age of five. Linolenic acid produces both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, the
NOTES Oxytocin is a hormone which is a nonapeptide hormone which is found in mammals. The hormone is produced in the hypothalamus which is a part of the brain. What the hormone does, is it transferred by the posterior pituitary gland into the bloodstream. Two of the most important actions in the human body are contractions in the uterus during lactation and childbirth.
The system together can be known as the neuroendocrine system and contains endocrine glands that are under control of the nervous system (Curtis, 2000). There is also a second pathway which mobilises the body for action, consisting of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus working together to produce and control hormones, known as the HPA or ‘Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activation’. The anterior pituitary gland is stimulated to release ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) as a result of the stimulation of the hypothalamus. This hormone then acts on the adrenal glands to secrete glucocorticoids (for example, cortisol), and is vital to the stress response, allowing the body to be able to manage injury and release stress. The notion of different sources of stress can also come into play here, as the varying aray of situations an individual goes through will require varying degrees of physiological activation (Goldstein and McEwan,
Melatonin aids in sleep as well as ones biological clock. The thymus is located between the lungs behind the sternum and produces thymosin which help with immunity. The thyroid gland is located under the larynx in the neck and secretes calcitonin which is a hormone that decreases blood calcium levels which targets bones. The parathyroid gland is attached to the thyroid lobe (sits on the thyroid gland) and secretes PTH which is a hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin and increases blood calcium levels which target bone, kidneys, and the intestines. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidney and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.
3. The calcium levels in the blood and bones are being controlled and regulated by the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid glands are next to and sometimes inside the thyroid glands. Parathyroid glands are small glands in the endocrine system that control how much calcium is inside our bones, which affects how much calcium is in our blood. Calcium control is important because it lets the normal conduction of electric currents to run in our nerves and is also, the main element that causes our muscles to contract.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, the main glucocorticoid hormone made in the cortex of adrenal glands. It is responsible for regulating the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Cortisol is responsible for maintenance of homeostasis. Cortisol is a stress hormone that releases under severe stress.