Thyroid Hormone Lab Report

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INTRODUCTION
The thyroid is Greek word for “shield shaped” from the shape of the nearby tracheal cartilage. The thyroid gland was named “glandulae thyroidaeae” by Wharton in 1656.[1] The thyroid gland is the source of two fundamentally different types of hormones, produced by thyroid follicles, idothyronine hormone thyroxine (T4) and 3, 5, 3’- triidotyronine (T3).
Fig 1.1:- Conversion of T4 to T3 and Reverse T3.

1.1 Regulation of thyroid hormones in human body
Thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) are essential for the growth and development and play an important role in energy metabolism. Serum concentration of thyroid hormones is precisely regulated by the Pituitary Hormones named as Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormones TSH). The thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are formed by thyroglobulin, a large glycoprotein synthesized within the thyroid cell. Because of the unique tertiary structure of this glycoprotein, iodinated tyrosine residues present in thyro- globulin are able to bind together to form active thyroid hormones. Acting through nuclear receptors, these hormones plays a critical role in cell differentiation during development and helps in maintaining thermo genic and metabolic homeostasis in the adult. Autoimmune disorders of the thyroid
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However, it remains unknown as to why no relationship between vitamin D status and serum TSH levels in middle-aged and elderly individuals was found in this study.[23] An another cross sectional study was performed to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels in middle-aged and elderly individuals with thyroid autoimmunity, while taking thyroid function into consideration of relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and thyroid autoimmunity, the presence of thyroid nodule(s) and thyroid

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