The distal row of bones articulates with the metacarpal bases. The bases of the metacarpals articulate with the distal row of carpal bones and with each other. The proximal carpal row is termed an intercalated segment because forces acting on its proximal and distal articulations determine its position. Figure.1 Gross anatomic section
The lateral and medial collateral ligaments The collateral ligaments, found in the ankle, consist of three main bands on the lateral and nedial aspect. There are a number of bands that accompany the collateral ligaments. The lateral collateral ligaments are comprised of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATL), the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) and the posterior talofibular ligament. The supplementary bands that are related with the lateral compound are the lateral talocalcaneal ligament (LTCL), and the posterior intermalleolar ligament. The medial collateral ligament, also referred to as the deltoid ligament, is divided into a superficial, and deep compartment.
• Deep fascia is modified to form the flexor retinaculum at wrist, palmar aponeurosis in the palm, and fibrous flexor sheaths in the digits. Identify the structures on its superficial surface. Divide the flexor retinaculum between the thenar and hypothenar eminences, carefully preserving the underlying median nerve and long flexor tendons. The dissection areas marked according to position and pramana of Hasta marma as follows: Detailed dissection was done in the these mentioned dissection areas. The sequences of dissection was • Reflection of skin with cutaneous nerves and vessels.
Modulus: Femur bone is considered as fiber composite because of inorganic formation of matrix and fibers in terms of collagen. Generally composite material is defined as the combination of two or more materials, the composition in any composite material is composed of different components. Mix true’s rule: Eaxi = (vf) Efi + (1-(vf)) Emat Mix true’s inverse
Its posterior borders represent the posterior limits of the anterior cranial fossa. The superior surface contributes to the anterior cranial fossa, and anteriorly- articulate with the orbital plates of the frontal bone (liebgott,2011) 3.1.4 Pterygoid processes The Pterygoid processes descend vertically from the junction of body and greater wings.The pterygoid processes consist of two plates The lateral and medial pterygoid plate, which join anteriorly as a V, pterygoid hamulus projects from lower end of medial pterygoid plate(liebgott,2011) 220.127.116.11 The pterygoid fossa and The pterygoid canal. The pterygoid fossa is the posterior depression between the medial and lateral pterygoid plates The pterygoid canal passes through the base of the pterygoid process. The mouth of the canal is immediately medial to the scaphoid fossa, passing into the anterior margin of the foramen lacerum. In the articulated skull a thin wire passed through the canal ends in the pterygopalatine fossa.
Smooth muscle of the internal organs, the skeletal muscle connects to the bones and works with the connective tissue at the joints to allow for movement. The muscles connect to the nervous system and allow the initiation of movement through nerve signals to and from the
The rearfoot consists of four bones the distal side of the tibia and fibula (leg bones), the calcaneus (heel bone), and the talus. The plantar fascia originates from the medial calcaneal ligaments, dividing into a medial, central and lateral band that attaches to the superior surface of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor digiti minimi musculature, respectively. The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot aids in distributing the force attributed to the weight bearing. The MLA of the foot resembles two rods a rear rod consisting of the calcaneus, talus and an anterior rod consisting of the navicular, three cuneiforms, and the first three metatarsals. These rods are connected at their base by the plantar fascia.
Muscle is a long bundle of flesh which is attached to the bones at both ends by tendons. Epimysium known as tough tissue which protect outer layer of muscle. Inside the epimysium are fascicles or bundles of muscle fiber cells. The fascicles are surround by a layer of perimysium tissue which act as connective tissue. The individual muscle fiber is covered with endomysium
This nerve gives sensation to the thumb, index finger, long finger, and half of the ring finger. The ulnar nerve travels through a separate tunnel, called Guyon's canal. This tunnel is formed by two carpal bones, the pisiform and hamate, and the ligament that connects them. After passing through the canal, the ulnar nerve branches out to supply feeling to the little finger and half of the ring finger. Branches of this nerve also supply the small muscles in the palm and the muscle that pulls the thumb toward the palm.
What is the medial collateral ligament (MCL)? The MCL is one of the main four ligaments that is part of the knee. This ligament is a broad, thick band that runs down the inner part of the knee, from the femur to the top of the tibia, but is located outside the joint itself. The job of the MCL is to support the knee with the help of the other ligaments in the knee. When stress is applied to this ligament it aids control in transferring the join through a normal range of motion.