The menisci improve congruency between the femoral and condyles of tibia during this movement.27 Figure 8: Articular surfaces of knee joint (A- In extension, B- In flexion). EXTRACAPSULAR LIGAMENTS The ligamentum patellae is attached to the lower border of the patella superiorly and to the tibia tuberosity inferiorly. It is continuation of the central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon.28 The cordlike lateral collateral ligament is attached superiorly to the lateral condyle of the femur and inferiorly to the head of the fibula. The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle.
The coronal structure connects parietal bones. The labroid suture unites the parietal with the occipital. Ball and socket joint as one in which the rounded surface of a bone fits into and moves within a cup-shaped depression, examples of this type of synovial joint are hip and shoulder joints. The ball-and-socket joint allows freedom of movement up, down, right left and in full 360-degree rotation. Gliding joints allows two or more flat or slightly rounded bones to move easily together without friction or grinding.
The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally. Distally, the bones are connected by a wrist capsule, radio-ulnar stabilizing ligaments (dorsal and volar) and a fibrocartilage articular disk (triangular fibrocartilage compex, TFCC) (). There is an interosseus membrane
The acetabular cavity consists of the peripheral articular lunate surface and the non-articular acetabular fossa in the center. The articular surface is enlarged by a fibrocartilaginous articular labrum. The lunate surface is crescentic and medially is has the acetabular notch through which the intrascapular ligament of the femoral head emerge and joins the femoral head to the acetabular fossa.
The plantar interossei made with unipennate morphology and dorsal interossei made with bipennate. • There are three plantar interossei muscles in the foot. These muscles adduct digits three to five and help to move the metatarsophalangeal joints. • Four dorsal interossei muscles are found in the foot. And they locate between the metatarsal.
Anatomically, the patella is of a disproportionate oval-shaped sesamoid bone which articulates with the femoral sulcus. Its proximal attachment is the quadriceps tendon which envelopes the structure and distally at the apex, the patellar tendon attaches. Both the tendons are functional as to stabilise the patella bone in the knee joint during movements or even when the joint is static. Also, the patellar retinacula are attached to both the medial and lateral sides of the patella. When the tendon is overused chronically without given adequate time to heal, tendinosis known as Jumper’s Knee can occur in response to the damage.
Muscle is a long bundle of flesh which is attached to the bones at both ends by tendons. Epimysium known as tough tissue which protect outer layer of muscle. Inside the epimysium are fascicles or bundles of muscle fiber cells. The fascicles are surround by a layer of perimysium tissue which act as connective tissue. The individual muscle fiber is covered with endomysium
The frontal sinus is therefor able to communicate with, and drain its contents into the ostiomeatal complex because of the connection between its frontonasal duct (recess) and the ethmoidal infundibulum. The uncinate process, which forms the anterior and medial limitation of the hiatus semilunaris and the ethmoidal infundibulum (respectively), is a thin, crescent shaped, bony leaflet that emerges from the ethmoidal labrynth
One group arises from the apex of the orbit to attach to the sclera anterior to the equator of the eye (rectus muscles- medial, lateral, superior and inferior) and second group consists of the oblique muscles (Double vision, 2012). The extra-ocular muscles are supplied by cranial nerves (the third, fourth or sixth cranial nerves). Among the cranial nerves, the nerve responsible for double vision is abducens nerve when she looks right. The probable cause for the double vision is the presence of lesions in the nerve. Since the lesions occur only in the nerve (branch) that supply the right eye not to the left eye.
Proximal Tibiofibular Joint Dislocation A proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation is a type of knee injury. The two bones of the lower leg connect at a joint on the outside of the knee. The thinner, outside bone is the fibula. The larger bone is the tibia. This condition occurs when the top (head) of the fibula separates from the tibia.
Synergist muscles also help to create the movement. In the bicep curl the synergist muscles are the brachioradialis and brachialis which assist the biceps to create the movement and stabilise the elbow joint Type of contraction Concentric Contraction From the Sport and PE book by Kevin Wesson, Nesta Wiggins-James, Graham Thompson and Sue Hartigan I have gained some extra information on concentric contraction. Within the book it explains that this type of contraction involves the muscle shortening while contracting. A main example of this would be that this occurs during the upward phase of a bicep curl in the tricep. Eccentric Contraction An eccentric muscle contraction is a type of muscle activation that increases tension on a muscle as it lengthens.
scapula and clavicle abduction Glenohumaral joint Internal rotation Flexion Extension Adduction Ulna, radius , humerus elbow – flexion, extension And elbow joint forearm - supination, pronation Phalanges adduction Carpals wrist hyperextension Pelvic girdle (hip joint) hip flexion Hyper extension Abduction Femure ( knee joint ) flexion Tibia, fibula (ankle joint ) ankle dorsiflexion Tarsals , calcaneus, cuboid extension Navicular, cuniform, Metatarsals, phalanges MUSCULAR ANALYSIS Neck hyper extension semispinalis capitis Splenus capitis Rectus capitis Posterior major Lattisimus
The gastrocnemius contraction was executed at 5, 15, 30, and 45 degrees of ankle flexion and the ankle was positioned at either neutral, 10 degrees of dorsiflexion, or 20 degrees of plantar flexion. The quadriceps and gastrocnemius co-contraction, and hamstring and gastrocnemius
The Appendicular skeleton consists of: PECTORAL GIRDLE (consists of two shoulder blades and two collar bones, which articulate together to allow some movement). UPPER LIMBS (consists of upper arm, forearm, wrist, palm, and fingers that all work together for movement and function of your arm). PELVIC GIRDLE (two large hip bones that provide support for the attachment