These receive blood directly from the heart. These are the Aorta and the pulmonary artery. The Aorta transports blood from the heart to the rest of the body tissues, whereas the pulmonary artery transports blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. The arteries need to be elastic because the diameter is small compared to the actual size of the artery. When the heart contracts and pours blood in these arteries, the walls need to stretch to house the blood.
The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body. The human heart is con shaped and has the size of a closed fist. In accordance to that, a bigger person has a bigger fist and therefore a bigger heart. Moreover, it is the only involuntary striated muscle that is consisting of four chambers: two upper chambers “atria” and two lower one “ventricles”, where the right side of the heart is separated from the left side by an inter-ventricular septum, and they are connected by pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. Although the human heart is the first organ that starts development, it takes several stages to be formed (figure1): • First stage: Formation of the primitive heart tube: That is done after the fusion of endocardial
CO2 is then expelled and O2 enters the bloodstream, from there the re-oxygenated blood flows into organs and tissues expelling CO2 from and replacing it with oxygen. The blood finally pumps back to the atrium where the process begins again. (University of Waikato) (See fig.5 ) In humans, blood enters the heart from the posterior and anterior veins vena cava which carries de-oxygenated blood from parts of the body into the right atrium. From the right atrium the blood flows into the right ventricle and through the tricuspid valve which shuts when the ventricle is full. The blood exits the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and then into the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
When its full the pressure causes the bicuspid and tricuspid valves to open and blood flows into the ventricles. Contraction of each atrium now forces any remaining blood into the ventricles. The ventricles now contract (systole) and the atria relax (diastole). The pressure closes the bicuspid and tricuspid valves causing the first sound of the heartbeat. The contraction of the ventricles opens the semilunar valves, forcing blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta.
Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates. When a patient's blood is continuously removed and returned through plastic tubing to allow
The heart, blood, and blood vessels all form the circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system. As one of the most important systems in the human body, the circulatory system transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones and removes any waste products. Without the circulatory system, your organs wouldn't be able to function, causing death. With the blood vessels taking blood around the body, the heart pumps all this blood. According to Ballard, "Inside the heart there are four spaces called chambers.
Thus, the pericardial cavity allows the heart movement to be flexible. The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart totally except at the inlet and outlet of the cardiac vessels, where they form two significant tubes. One of the tubes serves as an interconnection to the inferior and superior vena cava and the pulmonary veins, whereas the other connects the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. Blood Supply and Innervation of the
(RV) which is known as residual volume is how much air remains in the lungs after a forced expiration. Vital capacity (VC) this is what air is left in the lungs after a forced expiration. This leads into what forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)is, which is how much air an individual can breath out in one second out of four seconds. Four seconds in the about of time it should take a normal individual to release all of their breath. This is different for an individual with a disease such as asthma because it is an obstructive disease which causes an individual the have difficulties in breathing.
Gas exchange is a process in which two different gases are travelling in opposite directions;inhaled air is transferred from the lungs into the bloodstream and the release of carbon dioxide,from the bloodstream,through exhaled air.A suitable Gas exchange surface would include thin,moist and large characteristics.An efficient Gas exchange is vital as it is linked with respiration in animals. Guppy Fish (Poecilia reticulata): The Guppy fish belong to the Poecilia Reticulata family.Guppy fish are water-based animals that have an external gas exchange system that is constantly exposed to water. The water is an extremely important and efficient habitat for the guppy fish as the water prevents the gills from sticking together or collapsing like
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDS) Cardiovascular diseases comprise ailments that include the blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries) or the heart, or together or diseases that disturb the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system, also named as the circulatory system, is the system that transports blood all over the human body. It is composed of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. It delivers oxygenated blood from the lungs and heart through the entire body by the arteries. Blood drives through the capillaries - vessels located between the veins and arteries.