R.H Tawney, an English economic historian, social critic, believed there were too many variations within the doctrine of various sects stemming from Calvinism to present the dogmatic form of Calvinism as the source of capitalism. I agree with Tawney’s view because his case is too specific in giving credit to only Calvinism, as the source of the “Protestant
Whilst in exile in the USA key theorists Max Horkheimer and T.W. Adorno developed an account of the “culture industry” calling attention to how industrialized and commercialized culture had become under capitalist relations of production. This observation was most evident through the overwhelmingly low level of state support for film and television industries. Mass culture was highly commercialised which was a key facture in determining a capitalist society. This became a focus of critical cultural
Thatcher held it as a main priority to reduce the power of trade unions to end industrial disputes as poor industrial relations where a large contributing factor to holding back the industrial sector of England. Work days lost to striking decreased largely in 1980, due to improved industrial relations. Thatcher had partial part to play in this success for reasons such as ending the right to secondary picketing, compulsory ballots and ending closed shops. However the reduction in trade union was also caused by other implications such as the decline in British manufacturing, the heavy industry and the before mentioned unemployment
The two critical theories studied this week, new historicism and cultural criticism, share many of the same concepts. Both theories are under the belief that history and culture are complex and that there is no way for us to fully understand these subjects because we are influenced by our subjective beliefs. Also, both theories believe that people are restricted by the limits society sets, and that people and these limits cause friction and struggle. Furthermore, both of these theories share from some of the same influences such as from the French philosopher Michel Foucault. New historicist believe that the writing of history is merely an interpretation, not an absolute fact, other than the big facts we know such as who was president at the time or who won a certain battle.
Thatcherism and New Labour The two most significant trends in UK politics in recent decades have been Thatcherism and New Labour. How does New Labour differ from Thatcherism, if at all? Or has New Labour to a large degree simply accepted the positions and policies of Thatcherism? The term Thatcherism is centered around the reform programme of the Conservative party led by Margaret Thatcher in the 1980s. The heart piece of the programme was the economic reform programme, that favored freedom instead of social insurance, by emphasizing deregulation in the private sector, privatisation of companies and tax reductions and a ‘give to get’ scheme to curb unemployment.
He claims that the culture industry promotes domination by destabilizing the psychological development of the mass of people who primarily live in capitalist societies. Adrono’s writing on individuality is relevant here as he assumed that within the culture industry, the idea of individualism was a myth, “In the culture industry the individual is an illusion not merely because of the standardization of the means of production. He is tolerated only so long as his complete identification with the generality is unquestioned. Pseudo individuality is rife…” (Max HorkHeimer and Theodore W. Adorno, 1977, “Dialectic of Enlightenment”, New York, Continuum, Page 154). This quote shows us that Adorno strongly held that within the culture industry people must conform to the “generality”.
Although Karl Marx’s theories of consciousness typically relate to labor forces in society, one can apply his ideas in other realms of society as well. Today, one of the most relatable aspects of our culture is the use of social media. Through social media, one becomes part of a globalized society, one that is larger than ever before experienced. Humans have historically been limited to the kinds of people we interact with. In the past, we were confined to groups of people based on the social structures within our own communities, such as our families, schools, religious and civic organizations, and our peer groups.
Thatcherism v.s New Labour Margaret Thatcher’s conservative government highlighted the idea of “enterprise culture” (business-like decisions in the public sector). She developed a collection of policies encompassing the ideas of frugality, entrepreneurship, and society self-reliance. She enforced the idea that the government should have little involvement in the lives of the citizens. In other words, that citizens should be able to deal with their problems without significant aid from the government (self-reliance/responsibility). Thatcher, similar to United States President Reagan, was a proponent of the “conservative Christian” image, demonstrating why she focused mainly on family economic policies.
As mentioned within the lecture notes, I agree that it’s important we expand our minds on what diversity means. For instance, age is something in America that is diverse. The data Spector displays from the 2010 Census showed that over 35% of people 18-44 are part of the working population (pg. 46). I believe this shows an ever-changing culture as I’m sure these statistics were different 15-20 years ago.
(Bourdieu, 1985 cited in Reay, D., 2000). One form of capital can be linked into another such as, economical capital can be converted into cultural capital and cultural capital can be linked into social capital. (Bourdieu, 1986 cited in Reay, D., 2000). I will explore these capitals concentrating particularly on cultural and economic capital in terms of education and the impact they have on the experiences of young people in the second level school system. Cultural/Social/Economic Capital: The choices and transitions into second level education are governed by many things such as, social backgrounds, family experiences, financial abilities and parental control.