The 1920s was an era that started many recording industries, new technologies, record labels and a dance revolution. Jazz and Blues became very popular during this time. Not only did music boom in the twenties but new dances such as the Turkey Trot, Shimmy and the Charleston became well known around the world. During this era music and dance evolved and become more and more popular over time, the twenties was a rapid growth period for the both of them. Jazz became so big in the 1920s that author F. Scott Fitzgerald started calling it the “Jazz Age.” Jazz began in the black communities of New Orleans, Louisiana and it spread to Chicago, Illinois, New York City, New York and Las Angeles, California.
It embraced the revival of the talents and abilities that the African American population of America had to offer. Some of the greatest blues and jazz musicians/entertainers from this period performed at the Cotton Club. They include Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Ethel Waters, Lena Horne, and Bill Robinson, who contributed greatly to the club’s success. Duke Ellington, and his group the Washingtonians in specific, found their big break from offers to perform at the Cotton Club. The Cotton Club broadcasted their performances regularly, so they soon had national recognition jolting their career further.
This period of time was a post World War One movement from which jazz music emerged. Jazz is “a truly indigenous musical form based off of improvisation” which included “African American blues, ragtime, and European-based popular music” (Lapsansky 243). Its roots originated in the south, where it quickly spread north because of the Great Migration of African Americans. Famous musicians like Louis Armstrong and Bessie Smith became famous because of their ability to improvise (vocally and instrumentally) and their exceptional performances in big cities like New York. Jazz was so important around this time that “It was a symbol of the Roaring Twenties” (Lapsansky 244).
Fitzgerald Faulkner stated that it was a time when parties were everywhere, and life was superior. Mr. Scott Fitzgerald used his musical talents in fast beat and different rhythms. At that same time new dance styles had commenced, also closer intimate dancing between partners. Other strong musicians such as Bessie smith sang Jazz and blues; Billie holiday had tremendous vocals which gave him a powerful music carrier. The jazz age was a time to celebrate the change after the war.
In "A Negro Explains 'Jazz'" the author explains how jazz tried to shift the seemingly known African American identity of being full of "mumbo jumbo" to being identified as "conscious, intelligent, talented soldiers that are loyal citizens to their country" (Anderson, ). Jazz was considered to be "America's art form," consisting of brass instruments and occasionally the piano (Larson, 2). Jazz during the Harlem Renaissance "offered a revealing measure of the movement's character" (Ogren, 116). Jazz music as it was popular amongst blacks also had begun to gain support from the white community as well (The Harlem Renaissance). Many jazz musicians performed at different clubs and bars around New York City and specifically in Harlem where others could come out for the night and enjoy exceptional
As the cotton club soon began to became a well known club it started to attract many white clients who were looking for a good time. Many famous musicians started of in the cotton club like the famous composers of here time Duke Ellington and Arlen Harold. (Rollyson, Carl E) The Cotton Club was more then a speak easy to white audiences it was part of a cultural diffusion. Located in the heart of Harlem in the corner of 142nd street and Lenox avenue. The cotton club originated in 1920 but wasn’t called the cotton club when it had its first appearance.
Imagine an array of musicians (a saxophonist, trumpeter, bassist and drummer) passionately playing a symphony of music—with an apoplectic intensity and at a bone-rattling volume. This is jazz. Jazz has an identifiable history and distinct stylistic evolution. Jazz grew up alongside the blues and popular music, but what changed the way of music in America was still jazz. From the 1920 's through the late 1950 's jazz was formed from the heart and soul of African American.
Dizzy Gillespie got the nickname Dizzy from his zany on-stage antics his real name is John Birk Gillespie, he set a new standard for trumpet players with his innovative “jolting rhythmic shifts and ceaseless harmonic explorations” on the instrument during the 1940s, Which ushered in a new definitive change in American jazz music from swing to bebop during the 20th century and one of the prime architects of the bebop movement in jazz. Dizzy was the last of nine kids, was born in Cheraw, South Carolina, in 1917 to his father and mother James and Lottie Gillespie. His father was a bricklayer, pianist and band leader, his father kept all of his band instrument at his house, the great trumpet play was surrounded by musical instrument during his
Then he decided to mentor young Louis Armstrong showing him the ropes on the cornet helping him become a better player. Armstrong reputation as a musician continued to grow even more. He replaced his own mentor Oliver in the Kid Ory’s band, which was the most popular band in New Orleans. He spent his summers playing riverboats with a band lead by Fate. Their on the riverboat is where Armstrong perfected his music reading skills and where he made connections with other Jazz
After the Civil War, Gilmore was responsible for initiating the evolution of the American band tradition. With the addition of woodwind instruments to his new post-war ensembles, the professional wind band had supplanted the previously popular brass band (Hebert, 2000). Additionally, Gilmore started to gain notoriety for organizing large-scale concerts. The 1869 National Peace Jubilee and the 1872 World Peace Jubilee, which Gilmore organized, featured over eleven thousand musicians (Crawford & Hamberlin, 2013). These behemoth performances made Gilmore the most prominent band director of his day.
Jazz has shaped the world we know today. Jazz would have never been as popular without the help of the famous musicians: Jelly Roll Morton, Joe King Oliver, Sidney Bechet, Louis Armstrong, and Duke Ellington. These people helped spread the new genre through radio, railroads, and the records that they played. Where did this all start? The jazz age began in New Orleans where a certain King was born.
America brought forth the music class, jazz, yet Paris was the first to hail it as a craftsmanship. War-weary and hungry for diversion, the citizens in the 1920s and 1930s embraced this new musical form. Performers such as outcast creators, cutting edge experts, flappers, and socialites focalized on the clubs and men 's clubs where jazz ruled. As jazz advanced, it got to be connected with current developments in expressions of the human experience and acclaimed as the sound of the twentieth century. Paris respected the United States infantry groups that played all through Europe amid World War I.
Their first single was, “Come On” which was a huge hit across the country. Eventually, after releasing their first single and prospering, the band would go on tour around England. They were so popular and admired by such a great abundance of people, the Stones were “Becoming too big to perform in clubs” (Schwartz 14). “By early 1964, the Rolling Stones went on a British tour. In June 1964, the band rolled into America to perform concerts and to record at Chess Studios in Chicago as well as the Hollywood RCA Studios, where they captured the vibrant, earthy sound they desired due to better acoustics” (Schwartz 14).
Although Webb had already hired another singer for his band (Charlie Linton), he too was impressed by Ella’s talent. Because of this, and despite her “gawky and unkempt” appearance, he gave her the opportunity to sing with his band at a dance at Yale University as a test run. Webb was quoted for saying that “if the kids like her, she stays”. She was a raging success and true to his promise, Chick hired Ella to travel with the band. She recorded “Love and Kisses” with the band in 1935 and was soon a regular artist at the Savoy, one of Harlem’s hottest nightclubs.
In 1922, Gennett Records, an independent company located in Richmond, Indiana, began recording jazz groups performing in Chicago. The first group they recorded was the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, followed in 1923 by King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band with young jazz player Louis Armstrong. Louis Armstrong is and will continue to be remembered for his contribution to the Jazz Age of music. By 1929 Armstrong was a big star, touring the U.S. and the continent with his bands. His singing style became as popular as his trumpet playing.