I. BACKGROUND The history of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (hereinafter referred to as Title VII) is very intriguing. It is connected with a southern filibuster against federal civil rights legislation in the United States. This southern filibuster ended by the U.S. Congress for the first time in June 1964, while, on July 2, President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law (Arnesen 2007, p. 251). Given this, Title VII, Equal Employment Opportunity, should be considered the most significant part of the whole Civil Rights Act of 1964, because Title VII stimulated visible rise in minority and women group employment. From the very beginning, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ruled it unlawful for an employment agency, employer, …show more content…
130). The notion of unlawful employment practices encircles those activities which cause an adverse effect on members of a protected class. Certain practices, widely known as ‘disparate treatment’, imply treatment of some employees or candidates in a different way, such as requiring women to pass a driving test prior to applying for a job, but nor requiring men to pass the test when they apply for the same job. It is extremely important to note that practices which make a disparate impact on members of protected classes may be viewed as fair in the eyes of employers, but entail detrimental influence on members of protected classes. To continue, another specificity of Title VII lies in the fact that Title VII established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (hereinafter referred to as the EEOC) with an authority to encourage equal employment opportunity, provide technical assistance, educate employers, and investigate and report on its activities to the U.S. Congress and the people of the United States. Following the precepts of Title VII, it is possible to infer that the EEOC is a law enforcement agency for Title VII and other discrimination legislation of the United …show more content…
Hence, the proposed research has an exploratory nature, because the process of exploration is usually understood as search for salient features or unique characteristics by way of studying the phenomenon at issue in order to provide new important insights (Saunders et al. 2007, p. 133). By utilizing the exploratory format of the proposed project, it will be possible to explore, detect, and scrutinize both how Race prong of Title VII protects an employee from the employer’s discriminatory behavior and how this protection can be
Ira Katznelson is the author of When Affirmative Action Was White, a historical analysis of the history of affirmative action and racial inequality in the United States of America. Katznelson takes a definitive approach to the history of legislation and inequalities and prepares the reader initially with his title. Katznelson’s argumentative position and approach to the title of his book makes the reader question about affirmative action for white Americans, but in reality what Katznelson means by his title, When Affirmative Action Was White, is more based on the social programs and federal grant opportunities that were created and provided to Americans during the Roosevelt and Truman administration. Katznelson argument encompasses historical
The Act itself “sought to bar racial discrimination when it came to hiring, firing, or promoting workers,” (Civil Rights Act of 1964). The passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 achieved equal treatment of individuals in public places, houses, and jobs, which promotes America’s core value of equality. In addition, the passing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 also promotes America’s core value of equality. Prior to
Because of the past hiring of the firm, prior to 1980, they had never hired Black female associates. When the opposite happened, around the office many labeled the year, “The year of the Black woman.” (Carbado & Gulati) Once more Mary doesn’t agree with the hiring of the firm. Filing another Title VII, Mary accuses the firm of 1) race and sex compound discrimination, and 2) discrimination based on identity performance.
The Commerce clause refers to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, which gives Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foregin nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes”. This clause is one of the most fundamental powers delegated to congress by the founders. It has helped to seprate the powers between the federal governemtn and the states, along with the branches of governemtn and Judiciary. In simpler terms the commerce clause was to help regulate commerce among navigable waters.
In this paper, I will focus on the Civil Rights Act of 1964. I will provide the history, the important people involved in the establishment of the Civil Rights Act, the events that led to the act, and the reactions from the people, mostly Southerners, after the act was established. In the year of 1963, Blacks were experiencing high racial injustice and widespread violence was inflicted upon them. The outcry of the harsh treatments inflicted upon them caused Kennedy to propose the Civil Rights Act.
The Equal Opportunity Act of 1964 was the most progressive act since the reconstruction. Although not intentionally, many blacks were intimidated after winning these new rights. They were intimidated not to go to the workplace, voting, or schools. In all, the law did succeed in it’s plan to integrate and eliminate segregations. It succeeded because it was a law that finally went in favor of the ones fighting for equality.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlaws discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, color, or national origin. This act helped minorities to more easily defend their rights as Americans and to contest organizations that sought to rob them of those rights. Title II of the act holds that all people shall enjoy public accommodations equally, outlawing places such as restaurants from
For example, discriminatory practices in the criminal justice system, such as racial profiling and the over-representation of people of color in the prison population, resulting in unequal treatment and access to justice. Similarly, implicit bias in hiring practices can result in unequal treatment and unequal opportunities in the workplace, particularly for people of color and other minority groups. The impact of institutional racism on professionals can be seen in the persistent disparities that exist in various industries, such as disparities in pay, promotions, and access to resources and opportunities (www.Tarbia. TV, 2016). These disparities can create a workplace culture that reinforces and perpetuates systemic inequality and prejudice, making it difficult for individuals from marginalized communities to succeed and advance in their
The act was aimed on banning discrimination based on gender, race, religion or national origin. Although the Civil Rights Act faced the longest filibuster in the United States senate history following a bloody civil rights struggle, it was passed into law in 1964 after the assassination of John F. Kennedy. This article will review some of the surprising facts on
This is the next and more profound stage of the battle for civil rights. We seek not just freedom but opportunity––not legal equity but human ability––not just equality as a right and a theory, but equality as a fact and as a result” (Garrison-Wade & Lewis, 2003). That same year, President Johnson signed an executive order mandating government contractors “take affirmative action” in
Title IX was signed into law in 1972 and it required equality for male and female students in each educational program and activity that received federal funding. This means that universities had to offer sports that women could participate in. The reasons Title IX came into being was a demand from Women’s Rights organizations for equal opportunities. Prior to 1972, sports, competition, and many other university programs were generally considered to be masculine and “ not ladylike.”
Title IX is a great law that help women get the same rights in education as men. Title IX has been active for over forty years and has been helping women achieve equality. Title IX is a law that stops sex discrimination and helps break down the barriers that women once had difficulty getting passed. This essay will be showing how Title IX is fair to men and women. This essay will show how Title IX is fair and show the claims on Title IX.
Human Resource Issues Stemming from The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Turbulent times in the United States of America during the early 1960’s brought great suffrage, hard fought adoption of laws and change to the governance and administration of employees by the personnel department, the fore runner of today’s Human Resource Management (HRM) and Human Resource Development (HRD) departments. Debate over the bill that passed as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 lasted in the Senate 114 days and was considered to potentially have such risky political consequences as to loose support of the Southern states (Remnick, 2014).
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is an agency responsible for enforcing most of the EEO laws, including Title VII, the Equal Pay Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. EEOC focuses on areas such as eliminating barriers in recruitment and hiring; protecting immigrant, migrant, and other workers considered vulnerable; addressing emerging issues, such as accommodating workers with disabilities and preventing discrimination against gay and lesbian employees, which could take the form of sex discrimination; enforcing equal pay laws; preserving access to the legal system by targeting retaliation; and preventing harassment EEOC’s main objective is to serve individuals whom employment rights were violated. The EEOC must ensure
Preventing Discrimination Organizations contribute large amounts of time and effort to ensure equal employment opportunity since discrimination is harmful to performance and punishable by law in most environments. Although the many policies preventing discrimination are effective in providing equal opportunities for groups who have faced discrimination in the past (protected class), these protections may actually cause reverse discrimination (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin & Cardy, 2016). Since certain policies, such as affirmative action, attempt to hire or select members of the protected class, these selection criteria create a distinction between individuals. Thus, leading to discrimination of the non-protected class.