Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All amino acids have the same basic structure but differ in their R-side chains. Each amino acid consists of an amino group (-NH3), a carboxyl group (-COOH) and a hydrogen atom (H). The amino and carboxyl groups are attached to a central alpha carbon together with a hydrogen atom and an R-side chain. There are currently known that over 170 amino acids occur in organisms but only 20 are commonly found in proteins.
ARA h 2 Ara h 2 is a glycoprotein of 17.5 kDa and was initially identified from crude peanut extracts. Ara h 2, a glycoprotein with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.2 that resembles to a protein from 2S albumin family i.e. delta conglutin. Ara h 2 is known to be a storage protein that can act as a trypsin inhibitor . The Ara h 2 is an aciduric protein that can with stand the degradation by the digestive enzymes that might be the reason that it is recognized by serum IgE from most peanut-allergic patients .
DNA synthesis. When primers detect and limit the amplification DNA sequence on two sides, the thermostable DNA polymerase synthesizes a complementary fragment from the 3 'end of the primers from both DNA single chain fragments using the nucleotides added to the mixture. The procedure is carried out at 72 ° C, using a thermostable Taq polymerase. APPLICATIONS: The ability of the PCR to analyze a very small amount of DNA plays an important role in disease diagnostics. One of the important uses of PCR is the diagnosis of possible AIDS infection at a very early stage even before antibodies have developed .
1. Introduction: a. Hemoglobin structure: Hemoglobin is metalloprotein found in red blood cells having four polypeptide chains. Adult hemoglobin contains 2 alpha (141amino acid) and 2 beta chains (146 amino acid) which forms a tetramer called as globin and each chain is attached to iron containing prosthetic group heme (protoporphyrine IX). Ferrous ion of this heme is linked to globular protein by binding ‘N’ in the center of the protoporphyrin ring. There is a non-covalent interaction between four chains.
The generated DNA fragments after every cycle are used as templates for the next cycle. This reaction consists of 5 major components: DNA template, two primers that are complementary to the 3’ ends of each strand of the DNA template, DNA polymerase, desoxynucleoside
S-layer protein is the common antigen found on all the isolates at around 50 kDa, and recombinant protein technology was used to produce sufficient quantities of the S-layer protein to enable large-scale vaccine trials to examine the ability of this protein to elicit protection against a variety of different Aeromonas hydrophila isolates. Poobalane vaccine trials also provides enough vertification that S-layers are often associated with invasive systemic infection and the recombinant S-layer protein vaccine have a greater ability to protect fish against natural infections by Aeromonas hydrophila (Poobalane et al.
Preview: Today I am going to inform you about the history of the Zika virus, how it can be transmitted and precautions that can be taken in order to keep clear of this virus. Body: I. Main Point 1: According to an Article on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, published on June 20, 2016 - Zika was first discovered in 1947, named after the Zika Forest in Uganda. Sub-point 1: In 1952, the first human cases of Zika were detected and since then, outbreaks of Zika have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. B. Sub-point 2: Before 2007, at least 14 cases of Zika had been documented.
Ribosomes are found in both types of cells. Ribosomes make proteins by connecting chains of amino acids together for the cell to use. D. The Golgi apparatus turns simple molecules into larger, more complex ones and packages them in vesicles for storage and transport. This is only found in eukaryotic cells. E. Vacuoles are storage facilities for either nutrients for or waste from the cell.
For analgesic activity aspirin and for anti-inflammatory activities diclofenac was used as standard drugs. It was found that petroleum ether extract showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Further it was reported that the steroids and flavonoids in petroleum ether extract of Phaseolus vulgaris Linn., seeds are responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Antimutagenic activity For the experiment with the bean extract, a dose of 300 mg/plate of Ellagic acid (EA) was chosen as the antimutagenic control. Both EA and bean extracts were found to be non-toxic to the bacteria at the concentrations tested.
As with all eukaryotic membranes, the lipid bilayer contains globular proteins dispersed throughout a lipid membrane, to form a fluid mosaic structure (Nicholson & Singer, 1972). Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly known as Baker's yeast; a species of yeast is a unicellular fungus that reproduces by budding. The whole Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear genome contains 16 chromosomes including more than 13 million bases. As all other eukaryotic organisms the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains an additional, extra nuclear genome in the mitochondria. The cell wall consists of three components: glucan, mannoproteins and chitin.