In accord with their greater desire for intimacy, women are generally more tolerant of close bodily proximity than men; in fact, men are more likely to perceive close proximity as a sign of aggressive or confrontational intent. Nevertheless, different cultures have different tolerances for bodily proximity, and these differences often exceed the difference between genders. Touching Since men are more likely than women to associate touching with sexual intentions, heterosexual men are less likely to use touch during conversation with other men. Women, on the other hand, are far less reticent about touching other women because they also use touching as an expression of friendship or sympathy. Here I referred as men and women, it mostly represent the actual gender.
This non-traditional leadership style is characterised by completeness and interactiveness. Subordinates are encouraged to participate and have a say in every aspect of their work. This inclusive leadership style has its disadvantages, which is not only viewed as symbolic of women leaders, but the leaders have to act on the input they receive which takes up a lot of time, therefore opening one up to criticism which can be interpreted as the leader not having answers (Rosener, 1990). In addition Rosener (1990) indicated that women prefer the participation leadership style but when there are time constraints, women tend to act unilaterally. Rosener (1990) indicated that this nontraditional leadership style can be effective in organisations that accept it, where the organisation is not always about the survival of the fittest.
Gender Equality Gender equality, the word we often hear in societies nowadays. It is achieved when women and men received equality in all specs of life. The access where rights and opportunities are unaffected by the gender [https://en.oxforddictionaries.com]. Women and men are not the same, but they should have equal value and be treated equally [http://dictionary.cambridge.org]. A country without gender equality could not operate at its fully just because half of the population could not do what the other half could.
Females and males are supposed to behave in certain ways. There are things that are socially acceptable for men but not for women. This is one of the factors that differs a male from a female. Both genders aren’t supposed to communicate and behave in the same way. Feminism should be more about allowing women to apply for the same jobs as men, equal pay for both men and women, the right to vote, etc.
Cohen goes onto to explain throughout his essay that gender quality in the workforce is not as progressive as it may appear according to Rosin, but in doing so, he successfully challenges us to look at the facts provided to us in “The End of Men”. Majority of her claims are not cited, and have no validity other than her own ability to successfully write a convincing narrative. However she does bring up an interesting thought as to why men have more difficulty embracing nurturing jobs when compared to women who have been eager to embrace new opportunities in the
On the other hand, men tend to have a more command and control style. Therefore, men are more task-oriented and directive, while women are more democratic. That is often the starkest leadership difference between male and female bosses in which men provide direction for their employees, while women encourage employees to find their own direction. Both styles are valuable in different contexts. However, highly task-oriented can be highly beneficial where safety is concerned.
In case female candidates are apprehensive about how gender-based expectation will affect and hinder their ways to be elected, they can appear contrarily to those stereotypes in order to showcase their proficiency and competence as leaders in typically masculine policy realms (Iyengar and Simon, 2000; Herrnson et al., 2003). Studies show that female candidates sometimes formulate and implement more masculine strategies to offset those possible and downturned influences of widespread stereotypical perceptions about their abilities and priorities (Fox and Smith, 1998; Bauer, 2016). Female politicians may dedicate more time, channel more energy, propose, initiate or enact legislation, and give prominence to increase and advance their proficiency in areas conventionally considered women to be less capable and competent (Bauer, 2016). However, they must achieve and sustain a balance between masculinity and femininity, which is defined as the double bind faced by women leaders (Catalyst,
Women may be more persuaded by face to face communication whereas no difference is seen in the nature of communication on men. This may be due to women preferring to be more cooperative which makes it more challenging to resist persuasive requests that are made face to face. Furthermore it is suggested that females are only more predisposed than males when they are less familiar than males with what is being deliberated. This may be due to most of the research being conducted by male researchers and including topics mostly related to men. There may be a link between the context of communication and gender differences in persuasion.
For example, “American employers tend to prefer white workers over black ones” (Djamba, and Kimuna). When American employers prefer to offer only jobs to white workers than non-white workers, it causes discrimination and racism because employers have a different concept towards none-whit workers; therefore, employers offer low pay salaries to blacks, Hispanic, and other minority groups. However, some people had said that Hispanics women make more money than white women; according to Peter Mchenry on his paper Estimating Hispanic-White Wage Gaps Among Women: The Importance of Controlling for Cost of Living, argues that “Hispanic women nurses and K-12 teachers get a higher salary than white women.” Therefore, many seem to believe that there is no racial wage gap against women from different ethnicities. In the other hand, Mchenry also argues that the reason why Hispanic women make
Conflict Theory (Macro-level) -Emphasizes that the order of society are based on manipulation and control by dominant groups. - Focuses on the struggle of the social classes to maintain dominance and power in social systems. Application – The female superiority model benefits the Mosou women in 2-3 ways. 1. It reduces potential competition from men who are the ‘superior’ sex in other markets and from surrounding areas.