Tomato Health Management Case Study

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Tomato health management can b particularly changing due to resistant being overcome by new pathogen races and to introduction of new pathogens by global agriculture markets. The most important gene family involved in the recognition of pathogen examine in tomato has been the resistance genes (R-genes). Avirulent (Avr) pathogen recognition is done by R-genes and initiation of defence mechanism in the form of hypersensitive response (HR). Plant immune system can also respond to an infection through sensitization of their basal immune system that shares elements with the R-gene mediated response (Postel and Kemmerling 2009).
PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV.TOMATO STRAINS AvrPto AND AvrPtoB:
In tomato, the resistance against Pst which causes the bacterial
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The physical interaction between AvrPto and Pto was tested by using yeast two-hybrid system (Scofield et al., 1996). A highly significant interaction between AvrPto and Pto was found; AvrPto did not interact with several other closely related protein kinases (e.g Fen, Ptil) and mutation in either Pto or AvrPto that abolished the interaction of the proteins in yeast also eliminated the ability of the proteins to elicit the HR in plant leaves. Deletion and random mutagenesis studies investigated which of the 164 amino acid residues of AvrPto are required for the interaction with Pto (Scofield et al.,…show more content…
Prf is a NB-LRR protein having a typical N-terminal extension that doubles the length of the protein (Salmeron et al., 1996). The number of Prf molecules within the Pto / Prf complex is not clear but a minimum requirement is of two (Ntoukakis et al., 2013). In Pto-mediated disease resistant signaling pathways are involved. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are functionally conserved signaling pathway in all eukaryotes (Tena at al., 2001). The identities of the two MAPKs that become activated are not known, but we speculate they may be the tomato orthologues of the tobacco salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wounding induced protein kinase (WIPK).

MATERIAL AND METHODS
PLANT MATERIAL
The research will be carried out in the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics of Arid Agriculture University. Six tomato genotypes will be used for the experiment. The seeds will be sown in plastic cups that are filled with mixture of soil, sand and manure and these cups will be kept in the glass house. Five to six weeks old plants will be used for bacterial infection experiment.
BACTERIAL STRAINS
Three different types of bacterial strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato will be used for this research experiment. The first one will be the Pst DC3000 strain that is disease causing strain and causes bacterial speck in tomato. The others are Pst DC3000 ΔavrPto1 and ΔavrPtoB

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