Also for activation the binding of another structure to aral is needed: CRP+cyclic AMP so the activation depends on the presence of arabinose and cAMP. References: 1] William Klug, Cummings, and Spencer: "concepts of genetics" 8th edition. Pearson Education Inc, New Jersey: 2006. pg.394-402. 2] Yanofsky,C (1981): "Attenuation in the control of expression of bacterial operons". Nature 289:
solani or even by other Alternaria species. Climate change and the environmental conditions play very important role for the symptom development. The application of fungicides is the most common method for the management of early blight to reduce losses caused by it. This also has an effect on the pathogen evolution and which parallelly changes the symptom development process. In the present study we observed that in the north Indian conditions typical concentric rings are now difficult to found in the early blight disease of tomato.
Actually after the interaction of 72 hours, both growth of E.coli and S.aureus will be inhibited by Cycloheximide antibiotic. But for our experiment, E.coli shows negative result which means it is resistant toward Cycloheximide and do not producing a clear zone. Maybe the concentration of Cycloheximide is too low when it was plated on the E.coli, thus it cannot be inhibited by the antibiotic. The inbition could not be seen in both fungal species 2 and 3 also and this might be because of there was no fungal colony on the cut agar due to the poor lawn on the agar
Antimicrobial Activity of Three Medicinal Plant Extracts from Duba Province Tabuk, Saudi Arabia on some Human Pathogenic Bacteria Abstract: Three seed extracts of coffee (Coffea arabica), black cumin (Nigella sativa), and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) plants were purchased from local market in Duba province, west Saudi Arabia were assayed for the in vitro antibacterial activity against three human pathogenic bacteria viz Klebsiella pneumoniae, Psuedomonas sp, and Escherichia coli using hole plate diffusion method. The result revealed that some ethanolic and hot water extracts had shown antibacterial activities against the three bacterial strains under investigation. Key words: plant extracts, coffee, black cumin, date palm, bacteria.
Review of “Plant-based vaccines: unique advantages” INTRODUCTION This journal article “Plant-based vaccines: unique advantages” is based on experimental research into new ways of administering vaccines. Presently, the most common way of delivering vaccines is through injection. However, a different method of producing and administrating vaccines is to use transgenic plants. Pathogens can be synthesized in plants and when taken orally can trigger an immune response in the individual. This has the potential to become the most efficient means of administrating vaccines as mass production could be achieved at a fraction of the cost.
The DNA section acted as a negative control, and should not have growth as DNA is not supposed to grow on medium. The Trsf section was streaked out with the mutant mixed with DNA from the wild-type. This was the experimental group and where the transformation occurs as DNA was picked up by the bacteria and incorporated in the cell by mechanisms aforementioned. The Mut section acted as the positive control, which grew in the LB medium as the essential nutrients that the mutants are unable to synthesize are
Members of this group of protease had been previously assumed to be an aspartate protease, but structural determination showed it to belong to a novel protease family, the active site of which contains a catalytic dyad, glutamic acid (E) and glutamine (Q), which give rise to the name eqolisin. This group of proteases are found primarily in pathogenic fungi affecting plant and
Abstract: Vegetables are easily spoiled by different microorganisms with bacterial and fungal species during processing. Usually, vegetables are serving as carrier for pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses and lead to food borne illness outbreaks. The winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) species is goes to the genus Psophocarpus, a tropical legume plant commonly known as the Goa bean, Manila bean, four-angled bean or four-cornered bean and Mauritius bean. The ability of bacteria to attached on surfaces and form a distinct biofilm can lead to food spoilage. Biofilm formation relies on three main parameters including the bacterial cells, the surface attached, and the surrounded medium but the attachment of bacteria to the surface is
Moreover, we optimized the rice BMV-VIGS system previously established by Ding et al.  and adapted it to experimental conditions that allows subsequent fungi infection with M.oryzae. Three genes are chosen as targets that had been implicated in pathogenicity: ABC1,MAC1 and PMK1.Our results show that the generation of target M.oryzae gene-specific siRNA molecules in rice treated with BMV silencing vectors which trigger RNA silencing of the corresponding genes in invading and colonizing M.oryzae, ultimately inhibiting the invasion of host cells by the fungus and resulting in disease suppression. We also found that the efficiency of HIGS improves when simultaneously introducing sense and antisense forms of the candidate fungal gene fragments and silencing three fungal pathogenic genes together. The improved understanding will guide the development of effective control measures against fungi.
1) Isolation of fungi The fungus is supplied by the supervisor. In this study, fungi Aspergillus versicolor will be used as the microorganism. Aspergillus versicolor will be placed on the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium. The microorganism will be sub cultured once in a week which then they will be incubated at 30⁰C to allow the growth of the active mycelium. Finally, Aspergillus versicolor will be stored at 4⁰C in the refrigerator on agar slants.