Tomato Literature Review

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Living plants require a constant supply of available water for a variety of essential activities: water is a raw material in photosynthesis, it is the main component, by weight, of the plant body, and it acts as a solvent in which minerals and organic substances move within the plant and in which complex chemical reactions take place. Yet only a small fraction of the water absorbed by the plant is retained and metabolized. Most is lost from the leaves by a process called transpira¬tion.

The major function that most leaves perform is photosynthesis, which requires CO2 and water as well as light. Unfortunately for the plant, whenever stomata are open to emit CO2, water vapor is inevitably lost.

The Tomato has been widely
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Probably no cell in the spongy layer is more than two cells away from a vein. The xylem and phloem of veins is often surrounded by layers of scler¬enchyma cells. These impart strength to the vein providing a stiff framework to support the soft tissues of the leaf blade.

Description of Leaf Cross Section
Mount a prepared slide of the cross section of a leaf from Syringa (Lilac). Find the following 4 distinct tissue layers:

1) Upper epidermis. This is a single layer of cells containing few or no chloroplasts. The cells are quite transparent and permit most of the light that strikes them to pass through to the under¬lying cells. The upper surface is covered with a waxy, waterproof cuticle, which serves to reduce water loss from the leaf.

2) Palisade layer. This consists of one or more layers of cylindrical cells oriented with their long axis perpendicular to the plane of the leaf. The cells are filled with chloroplasts and carry on most of the photosynthesis in the
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The relationship is inverse; that is, as CO2 goes up, the number of stomata that form in the developing leaf epidermis goes down, and vice versa. Some evidence: Plants grown in an artificial atmosphere with a high level of CO2 have fewer stomata than normal. Herbarium specimens reveal that the number of stomata in a given species has been declining over the last 200 years - the time of the industrial revolution and rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. (Urban Forrestry

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