Total Quality Management Literature Review

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2.2.2.1 The growing literature on total quality management stresses the importance of TQM to organizational performance and has repeatedly stressed the lack of leadership support for the failure of many TQM initiatives. Some investigators have examined the implemen-tation of total quality management and its impact on organizational performance (e.g. Douglas & Judge, 2001; Jayaram et al., 1999), with both sets of researchers identifying strong positive relationships between the implementation of total quality management and performance (see also Hendricks & Singhal, 1997).

2.2.2.2 The three core principles of total quality management, namely, customer focus, team-work & participation, and continuous improvement (Dean & Bowen, 1994), provide
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The TQM literature argues that because senior managers create the organizational systems that determine how products and services are designed and pro-duced, the quality improvement process must begin with management’s own commitment to total quality. Thus, creating and designing systems that have an impact on how products and services are produced, and fostering organizational culture (Waldman, 1993) is the responsibility of leadership at the top of the organization. Leadership at other levels in the organization is in the form of team design and coaching behaviours (Wageman, 2001) and in the use of appropriate ‘control’ and ‘exploration’ structuring behaviours (Douglas & Judge, 2001). These and other behaviours such as systematic experimentation behaviours and implementing participation system behaviours are articulated in the theory developed here as key behaviours of middle and lower level leaders, thereby extending the literature’s attention to these specific behaviours at different…show more content…
A facet of TQM that views organizations as interlinked processes (Dean & Bowen, 1994), suggests that those processes need to be managed from the point of view of continuous improvement and enhancing customer focus, a set of behaviours that have not been investigated. Thus, the principles of TQM implicitly contain relevant roles for leadership, in addition to those identified in the leadership

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