Grewal, 1996; Kaplan, 1996; Widmer, 2006; Hu, 2004; 1997), where national/ethnic differences are often highlighted as a marker of distinction between Western and non-Western travel experiences, travel and mobility have also become flagships of ethnic boundaries. In a way that mobility and travel is considered as defining criteria for the First and Third worlds (Pritchard, 2000), the politics of nationalism and ethnicity become the dominant theoretical trajectory to be followed. I do not propose that issues of colonialism and orientalism need to be dismissed in modern tourism research, because after all they compose the cultural and material foundations of the business. But rather, in the light that travel experience are not only marvels but concerns more about daily mundane, quotidian and fragments (Edensor, 2007; Noy, 2014; Larsen, 2008; Urry, 2007; Hannam et al., 2006; Cresswell, 2010), the exclusive focus on the grandeur may block our understanding of the meaning of travel. As Qin (2014:108) specifies in the observation of mobile experience of Chinese female: “The modern experience of the female students and teachers is not the politically patriotic ideal, but rather the daily experience of the ‘customs, food, residence, and mobility’ of the other city that they need to survive in.” The question neglected for ethnic people, therefore, is how they have experienced and represented the daily, mundane and triviality in travel as ways of articulating
Stedman The Role Played by ‘spoilers’ in Peace Processes by DANIEL GRAY This study will scan the role of the actors who energetically pursue to hamper, delay, or weaken conflict settlement’ [ii] due to many reasons and by a different methods. This essay talks Stephen Stedman’s term ‘spoiler’ to classifying such actors.  This paper critically analyised of Stedman work; mainly by Marie-Joëlle Zahar and Feargal Cochrane.they use a similar model of investigating spoiler behaviour as Stedman, but by implementing independent and new contemporary thinking. I will observe more thoroughly the characters that spoilers have and the consequences they have over a number of peace accords.this analysis aim to classify apprehensions over simplification in outdated discussions on spoilers and the disputed negotiation used to quantify confrontations to peace. Location of the Spoiler The location of the spoiler is also equally significant in this discussion.
Cultural mediation is the ability of a third party subject to find new meanings opposed to the previous prevailing cultural meanings. Mediation is extremely important for understanding the logic of the humanistic culture of fundamental importance to study the dynamics of mediation elements in various philosophical systems, that is, the study of the dynamics of mediation itself. Civilization is the promotion of people on the way to understand the world as a complex manifold. Only in this reality mediation makes sense. The role of cultural mediation is growing since the recent migration flow from the Mediterranean region.
Political Political is one of the factor will affect the tourist demand. According to the Applegate E. and Johnsen A. (2007) political factor is mainly concerned with governments and political participation. The methods adopt the government use can greatly affect tourism demand. For examples, exchange control, currency export prohibition, taxation of tourists and residents and visa regulation (Page S.J.
In particular, with regard to disaster preparedness, a study conducted by Drabek about tourism industry enterprises in the U.S. showed that although there was a high degree of preparation among tourism executives, the strategies were not well documented (Drabek, 1992), and thus were badly communicated to tourists. So far, research has focused on tourists’ decision-making in selecting a touristic destination area, such as how disasters affect tourists’ future travel destinations. However, there is very little consideration of tourists’ reactions to safety issues during a disaster and even less understanding of their diverse behavioural responses to disasters. From a tourism management perspective, tourists’ responses have mainly been studied to build strategic ways to attract them to visit (Sirakaya and Woodside, 2005). In contrast, in the disaster management planning perspective, tourists’ responses and behaviour have been less explored, especially when compared to the responses and behaviour of local residents (e.g.
Segmenting the market is important because different segments of the tourism market require various distribution and marketing mix. Tourists can be segmented by many descriptive and explanatory variables. The widely used segmentation variables in tourism include geographic and demographic bases (Bennett, Strydom, 2001; Dolnicar, 2006; Goeldner, Ritchie, 2009). With regard to travel motivations, various empirical research studies have investigated that travel motivations differ among different market segments towards specific destinations (e.g. Pizam, Sussman, 1995; Baloglu, 1997; Acevedo, Nohara, 2004; Andreu et al., 2005; Jonsson, Devonish, 2008; Jensen, 2011).
To understand more about the tourists’ behavior, motivation is an interesting issue to examine.. According to Snepenger, King, Marshall, and Uysal (2006), the motivation is the elemental logic for travel behavior and also push the role in getting to understand the process when tourists make their decisions likewise determining the consecutive satisfaction of the expectation of the tourists. Plog (2003) stated that the tourist’s motivation is to get away from their place or the desire to see other area. Lien (2010) defines that tourist motivation as the internal drives raising and controlling the behavior of people. Equivalently, Romando (2008) also said that the motivation is the internal factor that drives the behavior to act and
2); tourism is basically perplexing field that is hard to characterise. As they talk about tourism is the "act of voyaging furthermore the matter of giving related items, administrations and offices." This definition is likewise like the past ones. Mclnotsh and Goeldner (1990, p. 4, referred to in Baum, 2006, p. 20) announce that "tourism is the entirety of the wonders and relations showed up from the connection of vacationers, business suppliers, host governments and host groups during the time spent pulling in and facilitating these sightseers and different guests". This definition more hassles the correspondence between the visitor and the host group.
This chapter defines the theories that inspired this thesis. In accordance with the main field of interest of the study, the Literature Review provides an in-depth analysis of the topics: tourism destinations, urban tourism, business and event tourism and trade fairs. 1.1 Tourism Destination This section briefly describes the main terms related to the tourism destination of a country by defining the term Tourism Destination and explaining its different types. The section then moves on addressing the different elements associated with the term. 1.1.1 Definitions and Types In the tourism literature the concept of destination has not one unique and widely accepted definition.