Tourism Literature Review

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2.1 Introduction
This chapter provides a selection of relevance literatures relating to tourism industry and sustainable development, tourism impacts, tourism development in rural areas, residents attitude, role of stakeholder in STD, strategic planning and community participation. Finally, the chapter ends with empirical evidence relating to Sirakaya (2005) and Lisa Marie Assante (2014) study which link to this research.
2.2 Tourism Industry and Sustainable Development
Definition of tourism has been varied from academic scholars, institutions, authors and other sources over the decades. So, to avoid confusion UNWTO (2005) comes with the following definition “tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside
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Nonetheless, Tourism is not a solitary industry in the traditional sense as it comprises a large range of products and services. Jenkins (1997), recommend that tourism involves into three sorts of business:
1. Businesses or trades, which are most generally connected with tourim such as “transport, tour companies, travel agencies, accommodations, catering facilities and attractions”.
2. Businesses or trades that benefit tourism but are not tourism related are “retail shopping, banks and insurance, entertainment and recreation activities and personal services”.
3. Businesses trades which give the fundamental framework and support for tourism like “public sector services, food services, fuel services and manufacturing industries.
With the expansion of the airline industry and the introduction of jet aircraft in 1950, the tourism sector has become the largest industry in the World. But, consequently tourism has also associated with critical issues such as impacts on destination areas and residents (Theobald, 2005).
Impacts are normally categories in three aspects such as:
• Economical,
• Socio-cultural
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The GDRC (2008) gives another definition that is “Sustainable tourism in its purest sense is an industry that attempts to make a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate income, employment, and the conservation of local ecosystems. It is responsible tourism that is both ecologically and culturally sensitive.”
So, it appears to be a new approach for tourism development that adjusts all forms of tourism in an attempt to reach sustainable development. It refers as an alternative form of tourism which can be ecotourism, responsible tourism, pro-poor tourism, rural tourism, geo tourism and community-based tourism against mass tourism.
Ecotourism
Ecotourism is presently characterized as responsble travels to natural areas that preserves the earth, supports the prosperity of the nearby individuals, and includes understanding and instruction. (TIES, 2015)
Priciples of Ecotourism
Ecotourism is about joining preservation, groups, and supportable travel. This implies the individuals who actualize, take an interest in and advertise ecotourism exercises ought to embrace the accompanying ecotourism

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