Destination attractiveness is a relevant topic in tourism research because it has a tremendous influence on tourists’ behaviour (Lee, Huang, &Yeh, 2010), particularly on loyalty (Buhalis, 2000; Chen & Hsu, 2000; Um, Chon, & Ro, 2006). Destination attractiveness has been investigated from two main angles: the supply-side and the demand-side perspectives (Formica &Uysal, 2006; Lee et al., 2010). According to the supply approach, attractiveness is the pull force generated by destination attractions (Formica &Uysal, 2006). On the other hand, in the demand-driven approach, destination attractiveness is based on tourists’ evaluations of destination attributes (Kim, 1998; Um et al., 2006; Kim & Perdue, 2011). In the past researches, destination attractiveness
499-508). Only one in twenty tourists acts with sustained responsibility during their purchase and consumption stage (appendix 1) (Chafe, 2005). This might indicate a gap between the attitude tourists have and choices tourists make towards sustainable tourism (Budeanu, 2007, pp. 499-508). Internal constraints limiting tourist from sustained responsible behaviour come from the lack of knowledge on sustainable tourism, the ability to understand the negative impact caused by their acts and the belief that one person cannot make a difference (Shove & Warde, 2002, pp.
It may be that the question is rarely posed because the answers are assumed to be either more or less self-evident or of less importance than the wider questions about motives and impacts. Once the visitor has been attracted to the city and their impacts, whether positive or negative have been experienced, the finer details of the encounter between tourist and place may seem less relevant. The attention of place planners and managers is generally focused on the detailed marketing and management of tourism destinations rather than on the broader assumptions, upon which it is based, guided by little more than conventional wisdom and the results of often very small scale individual case studies (see for example Pearce, 2005). However the existing academic research into the conduct of the tourist in the urban destination can be grouped into four, often assumed, behavioral characteristics, namely, selectivity, rapidity, infrequency and capriciousness. 4.
Many authors raised the issue of making decisions by clients, when choosing a leisure destination (Elliot, Papadopoulos and Kim, 2010; Nuraeni, Arru and Novani, 2015; Nickerson and Neil Moisey, 1999). Many of articles was based on the influence of the culture of a given place, on the choice of a holiday destination (Richardson and Crompton, 1988; Andersen, Prentice and Guerin, 1997; Ritchie and Zins, 1978); and on the impact of the distance to the destination chosen by customers (Yannopoulos and Rotenberg, 2000; Crompton 1979, Scott, Schewl and Frederick, 1978). Numerous articles described the differences in factors influencing customer decision-making between online platforms and stationary tourist agencies (Cheyne, Downes and Legg, 2006; Ku and Fan, 2009) or articles focused only on the factors affecting the customers choices of stationary travel agencies (Ng, Cassidy and Brown, 2006; Hui and Wan, 2005). Repeatedly, there has been analysed the influence of online user reviews on customer decision-making (Ye, Law and Gu, 2009; Sparks and Browning, 2011). The research was also conducted on the impact of factors on customer decision-making of a tourist agency by customers during the selection of individual packages (Heung and Chu,
According to Zhou et al (2011), the motivations of using social media have three main factors: functional, such as shopping, learning things, making money, creating things, and study; experiential means entertainment, escaping from actual world, exploration new things, playing games; social motives for example socializing with others. Also they found that the motivations differences on demographics. Female users prefer shopping, exploring and researching on the Internet while male prefer making money
Mediating effects The investigation of important literature in the tourism and hospitality industry revealed that the effects of intention to visit based on information searching, E-service quality and E-word of mouth has full mediation with tourists’ personal income. The use of planned behavior theory provides helpful guidelines for the development of the relationships that metamorphose into the ideology of employees working towards saving to leave their countries due to poverty and low income revenues. When employees work long hours and are not properly rewarded financially or non-financially they become emotional fatigue and have intentions to vacate the employment (Ciulu, et al., 2011; Hsu, T.-H., et al. 2012; Kinnunen, et al.2010;
Recently, some theorists have raised out a new definition of attitude which relates it as being multidimensional in nature (Citeman, 2010). Attitude is also affected by feeling such as emotions and states. Residents attitudes are influenced by various factors towards tourism development. Accordingly, Harrill (2004), has identified three common factors such as economic dependency, socioeconomic factors and spatial factors which influence attitudes towards tourism development. There are other studies which categories them as personal factors, demographic factors (gender, age, occupational situation, level of income, educational level and place of residence), social factors (length of residence, geographic zones and state of economy) and factors link to tourism (Inbakaran, 2006) bearing in mind that residents attitudes toward tourism development change over time.
CHAPTER 2 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction Based on the problem that has been mentioned in chapter 1, there is a gap of the knowledge in motivation between nature based activities that participated. First, it wil be explained the motivation then into the motivation in tourism context. Third it will be explain the relationship between travel motivation and activity participated in nature – based tourism. 2.1.1Motivation Motivation is a subject that is often discussed constantly, especially in the psychology study area. In addition, motivation also has been studied and discussed in other study area include education, tourism and others studies which involve with psychology.
Introduction Tourist decision making is a central concern of both tourism researchers and practitioners, with previous research in this area extensively examining the destination choice process and proposing a number of tourist decision-making models (Crompton and Ankomah 1993; Woodside and Lysonski 1989). Research has also recognized other contributing factors and incorporated them into tourist decision-making behavior, including attitudes (Um and Crompton 1990), tourist characteristics (Beerli and Martín 2004; Hugstad, Taylor, and Bruce 1987), and other psychological factors (Pizam 2004; Snepenger 1987). Perceived risks have been of particular interest to some researchers and recognized as a fundamental concept in consumer behavior, with
Calvo et al., argued for the intimate relation between the attractiveness of a destination and its image, the latter having the power to influence the tourist’s perception of quality, satisfaction and willingness to return or recommend the destination. Furthermore, the construction of the attractiveness includes every component of the destination and the linkages between them. Linkages have a strong effect on the tourist’s decision. A destination with an efficient, broad and strong marketing campaign and easy accessibility would be more attractive than one that is barely present in diverse media. However, a marketing campaign can be a two-edged sword if it is not based on what the destination has truly to offer.