The various research questions that are required to know to understand the tourism decision making process: 1. The influence of tourism service characteristics on decision-making Do the decision-making stages change according to the nature of tourism product? How does decision-making process change for tourism services? 2. Risk reduction strategies and their influence on decision making policies Do consumers of tourism services/products or destinations rely more on personal than non-personal sources?
Subsequently,Gardini details the function of promotion and marketing strategy and destination management by stating that the former affect mainly brand image while the latter affect “carry capacity ,firm efficiency and the consistency of all elements in the destination product mix”（p.5).He concluded that the marketing strategies affect brand position while the actual selection progress of a tourism destination is affected by supply management such as efficiency of tourism firm,good pricing policy and fast destination accessibility (p.14). Iordache,Cebuc,& Panoiu on the contrary,maintain that the brand is an increasing and determining factor of a tourists destination’s competitiveness by stating that a brand is the start point of marketing decisions thus express the personality of an organization or destination(2009,p.151).Furthermore,it is argued that the brand in developed economics has proven to be the main competitive advantage and influence for any service(p.153). BĂLTESCU (2011,p.156) discusses comparative advantage for a tourism destination by comparing Porter’s model and Calgary model to find out the necessity for the establishment of a organization to undertake the respective task to develop the
ICOMOS (International Scientific Committee on Cultural Tourism) 1997 Cultural tourism can be defined as that activity which enables people to experience the different ways of life of other people, thereby gaining at first hand an understanding of their customs, traditions, the physical environment, the intellectual ideas and those places of architectural, historic, archaeological or other cultural significance which remain from earlier times. Cultural tourism differs from recreational tourism in that it seeks to gain an understanding or appreciation of the nature of the place being visited. UNWTO (World Tourism Organization) 2004 (Cultural tourism) represent movements of people motivated by cultural intents such as study tours, performing arts, festivals, cultural events, visits to sites and monuments, as well as travel for pilgrimages… it is also about immersion in and enjoyment of the lifestyle of the local people, the local area and what constitutes its identity and
Customer competence in the market can be considered as a key resource which helps the industry to attain this. (Ku, Yang and Huang, 2013) The operating method of a travel agencies are influenced heavily by innovation facility resources by the travel agencies, this can be explained with an example of a manager of a travel agents implements new idea in there operational structure to reduce cost without destroying customer satisfaction. (ibid) Also the new trend which is flowed by the travel agents are database marketing. It is generally building up information or data of customer so that they can communicate to their target audience more precisely(Oppermann,
In order to study marketing tourism strategies the elements of marketing mix (7Ps) should be identified. Internal Marketing (Employees) Internal marketing is considered to be a fundamental basis for customer withholding in high-quality service delivery. Interactive Marketing (Customers or Tourists) According to Gronroos (1994), customer relationship in services has recently attracted much attention to organizations as concentrating their efforts upon maintaining existing customers rather than attracting new ones. MARKETING OF A DESTINATION Today’s marketers are concerned with a new field called Marketing Culture of a Destination. This destination marketing culture stems from improved models of marketing processes including the prediction of marketing phenomena, the type of improved marketing decision making the successful implementation of new decision models and the techniques in the practice of marketing (Sawhney, 1998).
Whereas and extrinsic motivational approach inspect the broader elements which form people’s attitudes, likings and opinions but are more externally determined for instance the way tourism is viewed will be affected by society and culture element of one’s environment (Page, 2011). 2.1.5 RELATION OF PUSH AND PULL MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS TO
• Impacts of Tourism on the livelihood of the residents In doing this research we found that there are several aspects to look at in founding out how has tourism being developed within the parish of Portland, what I found interesting is how the livelihood of residents within communities of Portland has been affected. Before we look at the impacts of the lives of residents in Portland let’s look at the impacts of tourism, some may say that tourism can impact a destination both positively or negative depending on the observer. Depending on the observer of who is trying to determine how tourism benefit has the destination, a positive social impact of tourism could be the preservation or improvement of Traditional handcraft items. According to Davis (2015), found that “a sum of $9 million was funded by the Ministry of Tourism, through the Portland Parish Council to
One major l factor is motivation. Motivation is a driving force that propels us to move (Solomon, 2004) and plays a crucial role in determining the decision making process and travel behavior of tourists .For a company to gain a competitive differential advantage, it needs to fully understand what triggers consumers to purchase tourism or hospitality products. It has been known that a variety of forces namely push and pull, do compel an individual to take action and have long been used to determine motivation for travel by individuals (Bogari et al., 2004; Kim and Lee,
People who are perceived to share similar attitudes will also be perceived to exhibit similar social behaviors, while those people who are felt to hold different attitudes may be perceived to be in conflict with the observer. Attitudes to natural area tourism activities, in turn, are either influenced by or reflected in two factors. The first of these is the symbolic meaning of the activity undertaken by the individual, while the second relates to the value-based meanings that the words “tourism” and “tourist” elicit among user groups. Colton (1987) argues that the tourism, leisure, and recreation are basically emotive activities that can be analyzed by the perspective of symbolic interactionism. Symbolic interactionism is based on the premise that human society is characterized by the use of symbols and meanings that are derived through the interaction process.