Toxocariasis Research Paper

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Toxocariasis, also known as the dog and cat roundworm is a zoonotic disease which means it is spread through animal to human without having to have direct contact. Toxocariasis is a part of the ascaridida family, the genus toxocara, the nematode class, the canis or cati species, and the phylum nemathelminths. The first incidence of the disease toxocariasis was reported in 1824 the 18th century technology did not allow for such research in toxocariasis. In 1908 an English scientist discovered that seventeen out of twenty-four dogs were infected with the parasite. Toxocariasis is a worldwide disease, but most cases are found in the United States, Western Europe and Australia. These countries have been proven to have pets that are within close…show more content…
Once hatched in the small intestine, the worms bind to the gut wall. The worms are also able to travel the blood stream. If the worms travel into vessels that transfer blood into different organs it triggers an inflammatory reaction. The most common organs that are affected by toxocariasis are the liver, lungs, and eyes. The liver is extremely vascular, meaning it will be the first organ affected by toxocariasis followed by the lungs, eyes, and in severe cases the heart. Retinal detachment in the eye can happen in severe cases of toxocariasis. Lab values that aid in the diagnosis of toxocariasis are hypergammaglobulinemia, Eosinophilia and isohemagglutinin A and B titers. Nematodes are illustrious and detected by their cylindrical shape and their length. Male and female are distinguished through length as well. Males are recognized as ten centimeters and female are recognized as 18 centimeters. The eggs are brown, round and have a protein film surrounding the egg for protection. The recommended treatment for toxocariasis are albendazole or mebendazole but the patient needs to be educated and aware that this treatment is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Since there are not any approved pharmacologic treatments to treat toxocariasis there is a broad spectrum of treatment regimens that are used depending on each physician. An example of a broad spectrum treatment is a corticosteroids to reduce

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