journal that I have choose to explain the trade-off theory of capital structure is “A survey of the trade-off theory of corporate financing” which is written by Chikashi TSUJI. According to this journal, the author show that the study of the trade-off theory of capital structure and the survey of the experiential evidence to support the trade-off theory for the US capital market and other international countries. Trade-off theory of capital structure is the theory that a company used to balance the company’s
The social theories of development provide an analysis to societies (usually third world countries) which are undergoing a delayed transition to capitalist industrialisation (McMichael, 2008). This essay will show that there are diverse ways of conceptualising development, which has resulted to contrasting understandings of the role that trade and international relations play in development. Specifically, the social theories that will be discussed and contrasted are the modernisation theory and the
International Standard: A Review of Theories on Procurement. This is a review of some of the models of theories on procurement, with the view of creating awareness of their existence and the possibility of supporting the development of a state of the art procurement practices. The Theories examined include: 1) Incentives versus transaction costs: a theory of procurement contracts (Bajari, P.; Tadelis, S.; 2001). 2) Procurement Contracting with Time Incentives: Theory and Evidence (Lewis, G.; Bajari
critical discussion regarding the usefulness of the ‘New’ New Trade Theory(NNTT) .Theories of trade have greatly evolved over centuries. From Ricardo’s (1817) doctrine of comparative advantage to the refined neoclassical perfect competition. From Krugman’s (1987) New Trade Theory to Melitz (2003) New New Trade Theory. The evolution of one theory did not mean the complete erosion of another. It will be shown in this essay that a new theory is often a build-up or contradiction of the preceding one.
c. Theories of Liquidity Management There are a number of liquidity management theories, the commonly identified ones are as follows: i. Liquidity Management Preference Theory This theory was put forward by John Maynard Keynes. Liquidity preference refers to the amount of money the public is willing to hold given the interest rate. Keynes argued that there are three reasons for holding liquid assets. First, they act as ordinary transactions, second the act as a precaution against a rainy day, and
1.1 Unfair Trade Practices- Brief Background The term Unfair Trade Practice (UTP) broadly refers to any fraudulent, deceptive or dishonest trade practice; or business misrepresentation of the products or services that are being sold; which is prohibited by a statute or has been recognised as actionable under law by a judgement of the court. However, the term does not have a universal standard definition. Misrepresentations can be about any characteristic of a good or service, real or imagined.
likelihood that normative ethical theories such as consequentialist theories like Utilitarianism which can be compared to HRM being accepted. This theory was adopted in the Western world during the enlightenment period thus, resonates to its past. It makes an assumption about humans and the world and tends to ‘promote happiness, condemning the wrong actions’ (Airan, 2013). It crosses paths with HRM as they both make decisions through what can be seen as a cost-benefit analysis (Crane and Matten, 2007). Whilst
challenges, different development theories were emerged. One of them was that the creation of modernization theory achieve in the 1950s and 1960s with the aim of helping underdeveloped countries to greater development. Second one came later that dependency theory appeared in the late 1960s as a reaction to modernization theory which claimed that developing countries just stand on the previous steps of development as compared
accounting reporting analysis. Working capital refers to a firm’s short-term assets or currents assets. Management of working capital refers to the daily activity that ensures a firm has sufficient resources to continue its operations. The main focus of Working Capital Manage is steering the firm through challenges such as disconnected supply chains processes, excessive stocks caused by non-bridged interfaces, inadequate trade credit terms, and suboptimal loan decisions. While inadequate trade credit terms
it is now. In the past several years, nations are more closely linked than ever before through trade in goods and services, flow of money, distribution of wealth, and investment in each other's economies. The contemporary global economy was created by these linkages. The economic crisis that began in 2007 threw up new challenges for the global economy. Therefore, both policy makers and business