Traditional Agriculture Vs Conventional Agriculture

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A complex set of interaction between human, biotic and abiotic components shapes agro-ecosystems for agricultural production. Traditional agro-ecosystems feature these diverse natural elements, as a mechanism of mimicking a productive natural ecosystem. Conversely, conventional agriculture refers to farming in modern farmland emphasises on monoculture cultivation practices rather than utilise the complexity of elements in nature. This conventional farming simplifies natural interaction that provides ecosystem functions of nutrient cycling and weed and pest suppression by replacing biodiversity with artificial fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides (Pretty, 2008; Malezeux, 2012; Lin, 2012). Conventional agriculture fortifies its technological package with a construction of uniform and high yielding cultivars. Further development, the operation of this conventional agriculture has been supported by modern management such as greenhouses and confinement feeding designs with a high density of livestock. Many people believe that such monocultures and intensively managed systems are not only more productive and efficient per unit of land but also maximal yields in a short-term (Malezeux, 2012; Weiner, 2003; Lin, 2012). However, conventional agriculture has also raised concerns about its environmental impact because current conventional agricultural design and methods pays less attention to animal welfare, plant and animal integrity, energy use, pollutions and wastes than

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