Trait Approach To Leadership

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Trait Approaches
Trait approach can be defined as “The trait approach to leadership attempted to identify stamble and enduring traits that differentiated effective leaders from non-leaders”.
The earliest leadership researchers believed that leaders such as Lincoln, Napoleon, Hitler, and Gandhi had some unique set of qualities, or traits that distinguished them from their peers and were presumed relatively stable and enduring.
Behavioural Approach
Behavioural approach can be defined as “the behavioural approach to leadership tried to identify behaviours that differentiated effective leaders from non-leaders.”
In the late 1940s, some researchers began to shift away from the trait approach and to look at leaderships as an observable process or
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The goal was to determine the pattern of leadership behaviour that results in effective group performance.
The leader who exhibits job centred leadership pays close attention to the work of subordinates, explains work procedures, and is interested mainly in performance. The leader’s main concern is efficient completion of the task. The leader who engages in employee centred leadership attempts to develop a cohesive work group to ensure that employees are basically satisfied with their jobs. The leader’s main concern is the well-being of subordinates. These two styles of leader behaviour were presumed to be at opposite ends of a single dimension. Thus a leader was thought to exhibit either job centred or employee centred leadership behaviour, but not both
Ohio state leadership
Ohio leadership style is defined as “The Ohio state leadership defined leader consideration and initiating structure behaviours as interdependent dimensions of leadership” (Organizational behaviour Managing people & organizations 2000)
The Ohio state leadership identified two major forms of leadership behaviour
1.
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Command group- it is a relatively permanent, formal group with functional reporting relationship
2. Task group-they are formed for a specific task and are temporary.
Informal groups
An informal group is established by its members. The reasons for this formation are for ordinary interest, growth and support. There are 2 types of informal groups, they are
1. Friendship group-it is relatively permanent and informal and draws its benefits from the social relationships among its members.
2. Interest group-it is relatively temporary and informal and it is organised around a common activity or interest of its members
Group formation

Figure 17

Forming
Team acquaints and establishes ground rules formalities are preserved and members are treated as strangers
Storming
Members start to communicate their feelings but still view themselves as individuals rather than part of the team. They resist control by group leaders and show hostility.
Norming
People feel part of the group and realize that they can achieve work if they accept other view points
Performing
The ream works in an open and trusting atmosphere where flexibility is the key and hierarchy is of little
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