Title: A critical study: How Edward Said explicated the predicament of Exile through the works of 20th century novelists. Introduction: Postcolonial theory is the body of theoretical work, which is a study of colonial discourse and is usually called ‘postcolonial criticism’. It has pointed out the historical effect of colonialism and criticizing their persistence in contemporary culture, politics, philosophy and literature. So the attempting to discuss the theory of the postcolonial throughout critique various forms of imperialism and open a space for such critique because the theorists have struggled to accept the resistant power of the individual postcolonial means. However, the greater significance of postcolonial theory has been considered of the epistemological implications of the theme “Exile”.
This relates to Ochoa’s estimation of Latina/o transpopulations sites, which is meant to “suggest possibility and identify limitations of our current ways of understanding (im)migration patterns and place of particular experiences within them” (Ochoa 235). In addition, there should also be focus on how society chooses to label and categorize the Latina/o transpopulations. A lot of literature on trans-latina/os is either too specific that it cannot be generalized, or it is too generalized that it casts them under a shadow of other categories. Not only are there conflicting labels regarding the transpopulations, but there is also a misrepresentation of trans-latino existence in the United States. I found it interesting that there are different stigmas arising from social networks for transgender women and transgender men in both Latin America and US latino contexts.
Therefore, writings after 1967 were characterized by self-identification. Writers seek to assert their identity and fight assimilation. For instance, Sam Hamod a Lebanese American writer portrays in his poem “Dying with the Wrong Name” how immigrants entering through Ellis Island were forced to “Amercanize” their names. He highlights that assimilation costs Arabs their identity and culture. It makes Arabs lead a fragmented life.
It goes without saying that postcolonialism seeks to undermine and transform the dominance of Eurocentrist colonial discourses. It searches, as David Spur put it, for “alternatives to the discourses of the colonial era” (1993: 6) and “changes the world, providing interpretations that have practical consequences” (Schwarz 2005: 4). The postcolonial counter-hegemonic project interrogates and disintegrates any form of imperialism (Xie 1997: 17-18). Postcolonialism is, then, “about a changing world, a world that has been changed by struggle and which its practitioners intend to change further” (Young 2003: 7). Yet, as is true of nearly every field of intellectual inquiry, fractures and fissures gradually opened up within postcolonial studies.
As a matter of fact colonized people attempts to articulate their identity and reclaim their past in the face of that past 's inevitable otherness. It can also deal with the way in which literature in colonizing countries appropriates the language, images, scenes, traditions and so forth of colonized countries. (Slemon, S 1995: 99-116) Typically, the proponents of the theory examine the ways in which writers from colonized countries attempt to articulate and even celebrate their cultural identities and reconstruct them from the colonizers. They also examine ways in which the literature of the colonial powers is used to justify colonialism through the perpetuation of images of the colonized as inferior. However, attempts at coming up with a single definition of postcolonial theory have proved controversial, and some writers have strongly critiqued the whole concept.
The Tempest by William Shakespeare, is a play depicting the colonial relations that occurred when the European powers invaded ‘new’ land (Licata 1-2). His text was later adapted by the author Aimé Césaire from a post-colonial stance in the form of A Tempest. Césaire’s text is intimately involved with the Shakespearean text and so the assimilation of ideas marks the use of intertextuality (Landwehr 2). Intertextuality is a technique used to indicate the various ways that a literary text is devoted strongly to other texts (Abrahams 285). As the plays are both centred on the theme of colonisation, it is imperative that one has a clear understanding of what colonisation is.
‘The Shadow Lines’ depict the traumatic partition riots which took place in history, it implies the shadowiness of the border ‘lines’ of nations. To the author these are the lines which bring people together and to the contrary hold them apart, the lines which are clearly visible in perception on one hand but are abstract constructions on the other, which bane cross border humanity and perturb the lives and situations of a large number of people across it. The concept of identity is based on duo dynamics of uniformity and differential and thence the quest for national identity interrogates the constructional process of the same, that whether a nation can be a homogeneous entity at all? In the novel, the narrator recalls his past when icky notions and envy had envenomed the congruous lives of Hindus and Muslims. The narrator’s uncle, Tridib, who was an iconic figure for the narrator, whose intellect and knowledge was he smitten by, fell as a helpless dupe to the infuriating frenzy of the communal riots in 1964 and lost his life.
Jhumpa Lahiri’s second literary contribution, The Namesake, published in 2003, is a novel on the Indian diaspora. Indian history of diaspora is a long one, but after independence, it has caught the attention of creative writers. The novel records the everyday life of an Indian immigrant family that went to America after independence. It can be assumed that as an immigrant’s daughter, the novelist is familiar with the problems of immigrants living in America, particularly their norms, values, culture, religion, language, and above all, their identity. This paper is an analysis of the effects of the diaspora faced by the characters in The Namesake.
The study seeks to examine the painful experience of displacement that characterizes border crossing. The objective is also to undertake a comparative study of the forms of oppression and the subsequent subversion of the hegemonic practices. Space affects sociality. The politics of space impacts and mediates identity formation. Therefore the study also seeks to examine the spatial aspect of identity formation.
This paper highlights the problematic relationship between the coloniser and the colonised in a colonial context as manifested in Forster 's novel, A Passage to India. It also reveals the stereotypes with which Orientals are depicted and the constant process of 'formatting ' or brainwashing to which newcomers are subjected, in order to generate colonisers who are all the same. Further, it deals with the image of the land as being hostile to the colonisers, fighting them and intensifying their feelings of alienation and exile. The article particularly applies Albert Memmi 's theories in his book The Colonizer and The Colonized, as well as those of other cultural philosophers. Hopefully, this paper would generate further readings into Forster 's novels, especially A Passage to India, that depict the problematic issues of identity formation, race relations and complexities of colonial discourse in hybrid contexts.