This seems to make sense, as if one is a moral person, there must be some aim of the morality. She continues this by saying “For surely he must want others to be happy. To deny this would be to deny that benevolence is a virtue-and who wants to deny that?” (47) By saying this, she says that benevolence, or caring about others’ welfare or happiness, is definitely a virtue. She then continues, “a benevolent person must often aim at the good of others and call it ‘a good thing’” (48). This provides an adequate definition of what a benevolent person is.
He was trying to show that Antigone’s (thesis) and Creon’s (antithesis) principles were partially true, so that he could prove that their sufferings were necessary in order to establish harmony (synthesis), and for his dialectical thinking to triumph. Every period and culture gives the individual the right to act morally. Antigone, as self-consciousness, was formed within the Hellenistic culture, and expressed the Absolute Spirit, i.e. true freedom and universal humanity. According to Hegel, an individual can be free/self-conscious only in a community that is free/self-conscious because the "Spirit occurs as the result of the mediated experience of the community" (Fiala, 2002: 156).
It could also serve as a challenge to understand oneself better and to set conditions of new initiation of dialogue. At the heart of Watsuji´s ethics, I assume, there is a possible path to follow, which resides in a resolute implementation of Watsuji´s ethical outlook. The resolute implementation here is not an imperative, it is but an equal manifestation of both individuality and sociality, a middle path between the liberal and the communitarian attitude, between the individualism and the totalitarianism. Such a middle path might be reached by means of newly established trust in purely human qualities such as benevolence, trustworthiness, truthfullness and sincerity. In other words, there ought to be kokoro in betweenness and this kokoro should display the humanity and reflect the humanity of others (Couteau, 2006,
Kant Grounding is a believer in morality, more into the categorical perspective. He follows the objective, necessary, and unconditional rules that we need to think before agreeing on a desire. I feel like he believes the point on doing something is for the outcome can be good for something, instead of making you happy. Putting how the action is going to get to you instead of the effect that it will give you. Albert Camus writes about a character that is very ethical.
The divine command theory, utilitarianism, Kant’s duty defined morality, natural law theory, and Aristotle’s virtue ethics are the five types of ethical theories. The divine command theory states that what is morally right and wrong will be decided by God. Utilitarianism states that “Action “A” is morally right if and only if it produces the greatest amount of overall happiness. Kant’s duty defined morality states that what is important is acting for the sake of producing good consequences, no matter what the act is. Natural law theory states that people should focus on the good and avoid any evil.
There are two types of utilitarianism: Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act Utilitarianism is a belief in which, an individual’s actions are moral as long as the actions produce the greatest outcome possible. Rule utilitarianism is a belief in which, an action is morally right, as long as it justified in accordance to a particular law. Utilitarianism is less complicated to understand (compared to other moral theories) because it consists of “doing whatever produces the best consequences” (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Virtue Ethics). Mill viewed the greatest happiness principle as the cornerstone of morals, he
Why Should We Be Moral? - Protocol Paper 6 Recall: In the “Why Should We Be Moral,” Rachels states several points: 1) The Ring of Gyges shows how acting immorally can occasionally be to one’s advantage. Glaucon argues that all of us would behave like Gyges. 2) Rachels points out that it is a good thing if other people live morally, but it becomes another matter if you are bound by your own morals. 3) Rachels talks about a well-known idea that right living consists in respect to God’s commands.
Though the ideas Mill discusses in On Liberty are applicable to present day, they should serve as guidelines rather than restrictions because of the situational controversies in adoption. Mill’s “harm principle” is based on the principle of utility and how he differentiates action and inaction. By first claiming “I regard utility as the ultimate appeal on all ethical questions; but it must be utility in the largest sense, grounded on the permanent interests of man as a progressive being” (Mill 10), he means that he wants to do the greatest good, thus declaring himself as a utilitarian. Concerning
The virtue of good engineer includes creativity, good understanding of culture, morality, and capability of communication. In utilitarian and Kantian view of ethics, such virtuous values are not taken into consideration. This short paper suggests how future engineers should apply the virtues and excellences in their fields and why virtuous engineers are more likely to contribute to society and make it better. In Aristotle’s view, virtue(arête) is defined as an essential factor to achieve happiness of an individual, while happiness(eudaimonia) is defined as an ultimate objective of human-being. Aristotle insisted that the order of priority may decide whether one’s goal should be considered as a means or the goal itself.
One example of an ethical principle is divine command. Under the divine command theory, the action taken is right if God says it is right. Cathy was stated saying that he supports the biblical definition of marriage. Under divine command, Cathy’s decision is considered moral if he is following God’s law correctly. It would be considered immoral if he did not follow the command of God.
Clifford states that what we believe is not just a private matter but rather a moral issue. Clifford believes that belief is instilled upon us from generation to generation handed down like an heirloom (Notes, 2013). Clifford is basically stating that moral belief is adhering to accepted standards of society. A morally permissible belief in the eyes of W.T. Clifford is one that has sufficient evidence or is sufficiently reasonable to believe (Notes, 2013).
It is following from this passage on mantic techne (188b6-d2) that Eryximachus is able to incorporate in his conclusion (188d4-e4) the theme of human good and virtues motivated by Eros, a theme that is central for Diotima/Socrates. This is because the aim of mantic art-- harmonious relations between gods-- necessarily entails certain demands and expectations of human behavior. Eryximachus concludes that it is the Eros which is concerned with the good actions (περὶ τἀγαθὰ) and is realized (ἀποτελούμενος) with temperance and justice (μετὰ σωφροσύνης καὶ δικαιοσύνης) that has the greatest power (τὴν μεγίστην δύναμιν ἔχει) and provides us with “πᾶσαν εὐδαιμονίαν” (187d8). Eryximachus’ passages on mantic art (188b6-e4) anticipate
In his brief essay, “On a Supposed Right to Lie from Altruistic Motives”, Immanuel Kant emphasizes how essential it is to be truthful and how our duty to be truthful outweighs any other duties we have to ourselves to ourselves or to humanity. Altruistic can be described as a genuinely moral act. People who are altruistic take action for the benefit of others and deem other people’s interests more important than their own interests. Kant believes that people should always do what is right, no matter what the outcome holds. I affirm that Kant believes praising truthfulness above all other duties because he believes it is morally wrong to hurt the dignity of others.
Each one has expressed the importance of Aristotle’s view of leadership and opposing the way man has been conditioned to accept knowledge through science and reasoning. Levine and Boaks state that “the broadly Aristotelian account… demonstrates that leadership can and should be conceived of as a master virtue that, correctly understood, serves human flourishing” (2013). Keeping in mind that Aristotle’s Responsibility and the Primary Virtues of Character (Sachs, 2002) and Lewis’ The Abolition of Man (1944), in order to be a leader one must be ethically just, or what you will come to find as moral development. This is the concern of goodness and goodwill for your companions and leading because it is a beautiful, chosen virtue (Ethics, III, 1117a, 10). This courageous leadership translates to Lewis’ preservation of Man, not because you are conditioning man, but because you will make sacrifices in order for man to survive.