1996). Transient expression can be used in pilot experiments before proceeding to the time consuming and costly stable transforma¬tion. Problems in protein expression can be identi¬fied and corrected so that the chances of producing the desired protein through stable transformation are made more likely. Through agro-infiltration a number of genes can be expressed at the same time which can help in studying the combined effect of multiple transgenes which are expressed (Johansen & Carrington 2001). However, the yield of ex¬pressed protein is normally lower and the plant material requires processing immediately as due to the perishable nature of leaves degradation during the storage of plant tissue will result in further loss of the
The postnatal stem cells can be obtained from the individuals at any stage in lifetime. Studies from the early 1990s demonstrated that Bone morphogenic proteins induce the generation of dentin in animal models. However, the ability to induce the formation of dentin is not only limited to Bone morphogenic proteins. But Dentin matrix protein has also been shown to nucleate and form the apatite crystals and also to induce dentin
Currently, this technique is applicable to thalassemia Huntington’s disease, cystic fibrosis and Duchene’s muscular dystrophy. An outlook medical use of genetic engineering is for gene therapy. Persons who are born with congenital disorder ensuing from a flawed gene could have a sound gene inserted into their cells, preventing the manifestations of the virus. In William’s article where he believed that the primary therapeutic genetically engineered cells have infused into a 4-year-old girl with adenosine deaminase deficiency. The infused cells were lymphocytes from the girls own blood, into which researchers had inserted copies of missing gene that directs production of ADA.
Many different techniques have been used to identify mutant strains of the bacteria and as well as this, improve the ability of their genes to complete their job. Genes involved in photosynthesis have been manipulated to be able to capture more light so they will be able to produce more energy and genes involved in nitrogen fixation have
2014). These epigenetics studies provided knowledge on different epigenetics mechanism that exist in enhancement of flowering and reproduction stage in rice plants. Also, the epigenetics that occurred in rice hybrid rice are often investigated (Peng et al. 2013; Hu et al. 2015).
Introduction Gene therapy is one of the applications of the genetic engineering. It is a technique which correcting defective gene that is responsible for disease development (cited Safdar, 2010). It involves the insertion, alteration, or removal of genes within an individual 's cells and biological tissues to treat diseases. The perception of gene therapy was firstly introduced in 1960. 10 years later, Friedmann and Roblin reported their first attempt to perform gene therapy.
This process happens over a very short period. This process is also a great significance in biological studies because of its wide application. It may be used for cloning purposes, genetic modification of a given plan or to accelerate or increase yield of the plant of interest. (Microscope Master) Before plants are moved from the laboratory to the greenhouses for acclimatization and further development, tissue culture must undergo three phases; the
Normal physiology and development: Transgenic animals can be used to test the effect of the excess or deficiency of certain elements (as required) on human health. One of the most important animal used for this purpose is pig, because scientists can now replace pig protein with human protein and as such the exact effects on human health can be determined. This is an important method of drug development, for example, the development of genetically engineered insulin. Eli Lily, an American company, have prepared insulin on a large scale by producing the A and B chains of human insulin separately using two colonies of E.coli which were later joined by disulphide
Abstract--Solar radiations are more during summer but solar energy power conversion is poor due to high temperature. So, the energy conversion reduces due to increase in temperature. The life time of solar cell has been reduced because of a high temperature on the surface of PV cell. The main objective of this work is to reduce the temperature and to improve the efficiency of the solar system. The technical methods used for reducing a temperature are chemical spray and PCM filling method.
Nowadays genes can be transferred from non-related species into our specie of interest. The product of this technique in which alien gene is inserted into one specie from another related or non-related specie is known as Genetically Modified Organism or Transgenic Product. Bt cotton is a well-known example of genetic engineering. Plant biotechnology, is the name which covers all modern plant manipulating techniques that has designed molecular markers along with other thins to ease the selection process in plant