Eugene Nida on the other hand is in favour of domestication, although he does not call it by that name. He makes a distinction between two types of equivalences as the two basic translation orientations; formal and dynamic (also known as functional) equivalance. The first focuses mainly on the message itself, paying attention to both form and content. It is a way of giving comprehension into the lexical, grammatical or structural form of a source text; this is similar to literal translation and foreignization. The latter, however, is built on the principle of equivalent effect, meaning the relationship between the target receiver and message should be the same as that between the original receiver and message.
This problem comes from their understanding in Arabic grammatical rules that allows to use a nominative pronoun between two nouns to make a nominal phrase. This rule is considered correct in Arabic structure. Example: English (My brother is responsible), Arabic (My brother he
Hence, the translator will try to achieve the same function in the TT even though, it may appear unfaithful to the ST. The idea of a good translation relates to an idea of fluency in the TT or a way to make the target text acceptable. In line with this, Hatim and Mason explain translating as "an act of communication which attempts to relay, across cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication (which may have been intended for different purposes and different readers/hearers)"(2005:1). That so, the translator needs to study all the linguistic and cultural parts involved in translating in order to achieve a new text from the source language, that the TT readers can understand and relate to in their own cultural context. This agrees with the concept of "dynamic" and "equivalent effect” developed by Eugene Nida.
Thus, the translator must choose the most vital meaning to maintain the spirit of the text after its translation. The third type is quite the opposite of the second one since many words translated into one text. Last but not the least, the fourth type which is null equivalence or ‘nothing’, which means a certain text has no equivalence in translation, thus it leads to a new definition known as transliteration. Transliteration is the conversion of one text to another. For instance, the word ‘Majd’ is a name which has no meaning in English, while in Arabic it means ‘glorification’.
In a similar position, E. A. Nida defines translating as reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language, first in terms of meaning and second in term of style. Thus, priority must be given to meaning over form in translation to convey the accuracy of the initial text and give the target version the readability. This viewpoint will be trenchantly clarified with the illustration of Vladimir Nabokov’s “Lolita” and its Vietnamese version translated by Dương Tường in the following discourse. First and foremost, for ideas are common to the understanding of all men, but words and manners of speech are particular to different nations (As-Safi), a translator must consider meaning dominant over form to conserve the accuracy of
It means that the knowledge about a language is not limited by knowing its vocabulary or structure, it includes knowing another reality, another world perspective. To translate, derived from Latim traducere, is defined as "Express the sense of (words or text) in another language" and also "to render in another language" . However, the act of translate a book is more than to transpose equivalent words from the source language into the target language. This conception considers that exist a perfect equivalent to each sign in each language, which is not a real idea. First of all, translation pass from the translator 's world perspective and experiences, hance two different translations from the same book will have distinct interpretations, which involves differents readings and purposes.
If the same text is given to the learners at the beginners’ stage of language learning, they will definitely find it obscure, difficult to understand, and enjoy. Therefore, no learning in terms of language acquisition will take place. Therefore, the original text is simplified either by removing the difficult words and expressions, figurative styles or by replacing the same with the simple words and phrases which are
Communication and Translation are interrelated skills. It is translation that makes cross-cultural, cross-national and cross-lingual communication possible. It is not an exaggeration to state that the need for Translation often follows the need to communicate. Given the range of foreign and native language skills available around the globe, communicating in any language can present a challenge, and that is exactly where the need for translation steps in. Translation converts content from one language to another and make it accessible.
The Arabic language: only the article and the demonstrative pronouns precede the modified noun, as in hatah - rajulu. “This man.” The connection between modifier and the modified noun is so firm that an inserted a word can’t intervene, e. g. the language and the poetry of the Arabs: is to be translated lisanu –I ‘Arabi wa-siruhum that is the language of the
Owing to everything cannot be explained by actions, pictures and objects. Learning language means not just improving reading and writing skills by memorizing grammar as GTM and not just developing speaking and listening skills by practicing dialogue and pattern as ALM. It is acquiring certain skills and comprehension of language and background. Hence, there is nothing to say which one is the ‘right’ answer about what is the best method for the teacher and student. Each method has strengths and weakness, as the methods aims are also different.