It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text. Thus, translator has to be sensitive and professional. On the other hand, the object of translation aesthetics is the original text and translated text. The origin text should have value to be translated and include the aspects of informative, inspirational, enlightening and descriptive. After knowing the object and subject of translation aesthetic, the other important aspect people should know is that the aesthetic of translation has to suit the local culture.
Translators should try their best to translate the cultural information beyond the source text. (___) Translators need to
In his 1986 essay “The Translator’s Invisibility”, Venuti stated that, along with “the increasingly sophisticated literature on translation”, the urgently needed task of demystifying the process “had been initiated by the prefaces that translators themselves have occasionally appended to their work” where they describe the “labor of transformation” of the text (1986: 181). Venuti’s introduction in 1992 to Rethinking Translation: Discourse, Subjectivity, Ideology gave the impression that he was not as optimistic about translators’ prefaces and their contribution to the struggle to make translation a visible activity. He believed translators were so busy moving from text to text that they had no time for methodological reflection. Translators are always hard at work, but they are producing translations, not translation commentary, criticism, or theory; they appear as aesthetically sensitive amateurs or talented craftsmen, but not critically self-conscious writers who develop an acute awareness of the cultural and social conditions of their
To complicate things further, the professional domination of and practice of technical translators tend to blur borders or make them overlap. In fact, strictly speaking, technical translation is a specialization in its own right. It covers the translation of any material belonging to a particular area of knowledge, technical field or technology (e.g. mechanical engineering, hydraulics, electrical engineering, business management, etc. ), providing the materials require specialist knowledge of the subject matter.
Literature Review: In Translation studies, among the three the one type of translation studies is Interlingual translation (it means translation from one language to another retaining the sense). The sense for sense approach allowed the sense or content of the source text to be translated. It is also known as the free or semantic translation because only the meaning or sense of source text to be translated. In this approach certain theories included such as Nida’s model of equivalence effect, Skopos theory, Holmes/Toury “Map” and ethics of translation. Nida is in the favor of two basic “orientations or types of equivalence”.
A translator may subject him-/herself either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product. Translation is a complicated task, during which the meaning of the source-language text should be conveyed to the target-language readers. In other words, translation can be defined as encoding the meaning and form in the target language by means of the decoded meaning and form of the source language. Different theorists state various definitions for translation. The concept of norms in translation theory was
Machine Translation is the process to translate text from a source language to a target language by using methods which based linguistic rules or statistical approaches whose constraints are derived on the bases of statistical models to produce accurate translation, many researchers around the globe have been working on different projects for almost 60 years. The ability to transliterate proper names and technical terms has influence on Statistical Machine translation (SMT) as well as Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) [AbdulJaleel and Larkey, 2003], SMT systems uses large parallel corpora which may consist several million words although SMT relay on counting exact matches of sequence of words which be different in term of length
Documentary translation is concerned with all the texts that are used in the highly official settings. It covers both the private legal documents such as: Contracts, Agreements, Certificates and Wills; and the international instruments such as: Constitutions, Statements, UN Resolutions and so on. Moreover, documentary translation is a technical translation that has its own special language, characteristics and constrains. It is considered as the most complex type of translation and accordingly it requires special skills, experiences and qualifications. Thus it is highly important to shed light on some common linguistic features in the English documentary texts, comparing them with the Arabic
5.1 Literal translation Literal translation, also named free translation, is a morpheme-for-morpheme translation, which directly translates English words or phrases into meaningful Chinese patterns. These lexical items gradually take up the core words in Chinese language, and are accepted by the public through daily reading, watching, learning and communicating. For instance, 云计算(cloud computing), 猎头(headhunting), 意识流(stream of consciousness), and双刃剑(double-edged sword) are English loanwords translated through literal translation. 5.2 Transliteration Transliteration is another strategy of translation of loanwords and is frequently used in translating new-born things. G. Cannon(G. Cannon 1988) points out that the borrowing may be a reduced form of the source item, usually having terminal loss if there is a reduction.
The translation should strive for its integrity, correctness and vividness. The equivalence principle, which is one of the translation theories that can be used by the translators, is one of the practical aspects of translation. In particular, the principle of the closest natural equivalent, if you use them properly, will improve the quality of translation. 3.3 The characteristics of Equivalent Translation Theory In the full and in-depth study of any theory, most people will sum up the characteristics of the theory to distinguish it with other theories. The two characteristics of equivalent translation theory are the most easily misunderstood and forgotten by people.