This was the time when various institutions and scholarly associations began making efforts to develop Translations Studies as a scientific discipline that would make an attempt at explaining translation as a phenomenon. Since the 1950s, there have been many definitions of the term translation. The first Translation Studies scholars during the 60s and 70s subscribed to the theory of equivalence. Two of such scholars were Eugene Nida and Charles Taber who defined translating as "reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style" (12). Another scholar who supported this theory was John Catford who thought of translation as "the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent material in another language" (20).
Robert Morgan would recommend other varieties, i.e. linguistic, historical literary and social-scientific. For a matter of fact, any methods used by an interpreter are usually ‘appropriate to the material under consideration and can be trusted to yield its true meaning’ . However, for an interpretative piece of work must be clear and must express precisely . This is a necessity because of organising and corresponding to the ‘texts under consideration and to the aims of the interpreters’
Introduction Nowadays, translation has become a universal activity. It is the act of interpreting a text into another language or into one's own from another language. It requires mastery of the target language and very good knowledge of the source language. Translation is certainly not a simple task. It requires to be able to handle and overcome the linguistic and semantic issues that are associated with translating texts.
Translation is the observable fact that has significant impact on routine life. It may include the translation of highly valuable international treaty or it may involve an advertising poster that provides some information to the customers or conveys some message to the visitors in a hotel or restaurant. (Hatim and Munday, 2005, p. 03). Problems in Translation The main problem faced by a translator is the lack of word by word matching between languages. This is fact that each and every language has its own manner of depicting incidents or reality and the translator have to take the unique aspects of both the source and target languages into account while translating.
People translate in order to obtain knowledge or messages from the source culture, or spreading our knowledge to the other languages systems. These knowledge serves different purposes to them. They can be the need of spreading religion and culture, raising the educational level, boosting the political arousal, improving the existing medical knowledge, promoting products or changing one's belief etc. The reasons behind can be extremely numerous. As transferring messages from source text to the target text is exceptionally important, translators have constantly been striving hard in developing theories and strategies to tackle with tons of materials so as to achieve the best method to bring the information into the target culture and vice versa.
According to Pienkos (2003, p. 388), a translator needs accuracy, diligence, good ability to handle the stress and also excellent memory to do the translation. However, many people think lightly about translation. They think that translation is just change words and sentences from one language into another language. Practically, a translator should have enough knowledge about the concept and the structure of the source language and the target language so they can change it in the equivalent meaning in the target language. Koller (1995, p. 196) said that a translation is the process of transposing the source language to the target language which has a relationship which is defined as equivalence relation.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 OVERVIEW Translating is a process of transferring words from source language into target language. It requires knowledge in both source language and target language since every language differs from one another. When translating, preliminary observations have shown that translators especially students tend to use literal translation techniques when translating texts from English into Malay (Intan Safinaz Zainudin & Norsimah Mat Awal 2012). The difference in the cultural environment influence the use of words chosen by translators when translating from source language to target language. This was proven by the difference of culture between eastern countries and western countries.
In this literary system translated literature and original literature stand together and they interact with one another. The contribution of this point of view to the Translation Studies is; it makes the translator to think much more inclusively about the text by looking at the text’s surroundings, by questioning “why these texts are translated? how they are translated? and how they interact each other?”. When it is looked at many text, now that it is known they should be comprehended together, there is a new field to study on about how this interaction between the texts woks.
It is clear that the translation teaching is a non discrete discipline up to the 1950s of the last century. Translation teaching can be handled as a discipline rather than the linguistic discipline. The French Scholar Pergnier (1993:19) recognizes that there are many dissenting voices that want to free translation
It is not a secret that translation bridges inter-linguistic communication between people. It also plays a significant cultural and linguistic role in transferring messages between languages. According to J. Munday, translating "between two different written languages involves the translator changing an original written text (source text) in the original verbal language, source language, into a written text (target text) in a different verbal language, the target language"(2008:5). Friedrich Schleiermacher defines translating in two ways: "Either the translator leaves the author in peace, as much as possible, and moves the reader toward him. Or he leaves the reader in peace, as much as possible, and moves the author toward him” (qt in Venuti 1995:20).