Ideology, hierarchy, power and gender along with sociological aspects are considered important for interpretation or explanation of text in CDA (Wodak, 2001). Thus the job of a critical discourse analyst is investigating language with an aim to understand, expose and finally resist social inequalities. The focus on language and discourse initiated with critical linguistics that emerged in late 1970’s (Mey, 1985). The critical development of CDA is rooted in the fields of sociology, psychology and social sciences (Wodak, 1996). But it is different to its counterparts due to the following reasons as mentioned by Van Dijk (2001).
Critical Discourse Analysis regards language as a social practice (Wodak & Meyer, 2001, p. 2). It is a form of sociolinguistics. It considers the context of language use to be crucial (Wodak & Meyer, 2001, p. 2). As mentioned in the above paragraph that synthetic personalisation is not necessarily used in adverts only but in any text that has the function to persuade; so does Critical Discourse Analysis. It considers political, gender, institutional and also media discourses.
This theory regards the social context in which the language is used as crucial. Critical Discourse Analysis directs much of its attention and dedicates a substantial amount of research to the relation between language and power. Presently the term CDA is used to denote the scholars’ critical linguistic approach, in line with which larger discursive units of text are perceived as basic units of communication. CDA examines institutional, political,
As Luke (2002: 96) notes, CDA is “an explicitly normative analysis of how texts and discourses work in ideological interests with powerful political consequences”. CDA is mainly concerned with social issues and problems, thus attempts to understand how language or more properly, discourse, figures in social interactions on the assumptions that language use is socially determined and therefore intimately connected to relations of power. It argues that power relations are discursive; that discourse serves ideological and hegemonic purposes and hence mediates the link between text and society. In the words of one of its founders, critical discourse analysis
The author weighs selected and debated concepts of critical thinking, examining it an intellectual sense as opposed to a moral sense. Mulnix concludes critical thinking, in an intellectual sense, has a role in developing an autonomous thinker. This is significant to my research as it will outline how examining inferences can enhance critical thinking. This could be associated with media communication and information. Mulnix suggests from her findings and teaching experience, similar to all skills you can posess less or more of a certain skill than others.
It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text. Thus, translator has to be sensitive and professional. On the other hand, the object of translation aesthetics is the original text and translated text. The origin text should have value to be translated and include the aspects of informative, inspirational, enlightening and descriptive. After knowing the object and subject of translation aesthetic, the other important aspect people should know is that the aesthetic of translation has to suit the local culture.
Besides that, Venuti (2008) said that translation is only divided into two strategies: domestication and foreignization. Since translation is produced for many reasons: literacy, commercial, pedagogical, technical, propagandistic, and diplomatic, hence translators are free to decide what kinds of translation strategy they choose for their translation style to meet the meaning of the text. In line with the meaning of the translation, meaning is inseparable part in translation because the purpose of translation is about rendering the meaning of the source text to the target text. According to Alwasilah (1984:146), meaning is behind words and, according to Nida (1975), words have several meaning each other. The meaning of the words is influenced by its position in a sentence and the field of knowledge that use the
Since translation is inevitably involved in representing source country or culture, various elements should be considered in the process. As said above, German literary and philosophical traditions are the root of the tree of translation theory (Venuti, 2004). Therefore, we get to another important matter, namely, literary translation. Literary translation is a phenomenon which enables people of different nations with different cultural backgrounds, to read and appreciate other languages’ literary works. Thus a good translation will enrich the literary works of the target language (Haque, 2012).
gave rise to studies that situated the translated text in its social and historical circumstances and considered its political role, paying attention to ideological values, to cultural, economic and political inequalities, to individual choices and also, most importantly, to the ethics of translation.’ (Castro: 2013:). As Simon also states, translation studies have also been concerned with the central issues of feminism, which are the distrust of traditional hierarchies and gendered roles, deep suspicion of rules that define fidelity and the questioning of the universal standards of meaning and value (1996:10). Consequently, within the framework of a new understanding of fidelity, which is concerned with the strong reflection of women’s experiences