Translation: Culture And Culture

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Translation can promote cultural exchanges among people of different cultures throughout the world, enhancing dialogue among various peoples, providing opportunities for interaction, and contributing to civilization. Al-Khotani (2013) states that “translation opens windows to other cultures and civilizations.” (p. 46). Many translation studies have shown that translation is a communicative activity aimed at a socio/cross-cultural interaction (Newmark, 1988; Hatim & Mason, 2004; Venuti, 2008). Accordingly, translation involves both language and culture since they are not only closely interrelated, but they are also interdependent (Dweik & Suleiman, 2013).
The appearance in the 1980s of culture as a key concept in Translation Studies heralded
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Newmark sees culture as "the way of life and its manifestation [that] uses a particular language as its means of expression" (1998, p. 94). Finding the best equivalent for culture-specific items in translation is one of the main concerns for each translator. Translation, as defined by Miremadi (1993, p. 23), is a reciprocal process from one culture to the other and from other cultures into one culture. In other words, there is a “give-and-take process.” In this process, translators deal with non-equivalent words for which they should find an appropriate equivalent. James (2002, p. 27) explains that “translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions.”
This definition supports the idea that translators are faced with the problem of how to deal with different cultural aspects implicit in the source text. As Lado (1957, p. 2) explicates: “Individuals tend to transfer the forms and meaning and the distribution of forms and meanings of their native language and culture both receptively when attempting to grasp and understand the language and culture as practiced by natives.” In translation, therefore, not only the two languages, but also the two cultures come into
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Kramsch (1993, pp. 223-224) notes that the search for points of contact between different cultures, which can transform cultural barriers into cultural bridges, has been framed differently by different disciplines over the last thirty years. Translation and culture support each other and move in the same and parallel way. Salehi (2012, p. 82), on House’s remarks about the relationship between translation and culture, explains that Translation is not only a linguistic act. Translators have to decide on the importance given to certain cultural aspects and to what extent it is necessary to translate them into the target language. When translating such a text, translators must be aware not only of the purely lexical nature of the text, but also of an equally basic issue of understanding the social, economic, political, and cultural contexts, which lend connotative aspects of multi-meanings to words. Carelessness treatment of these contexts may result in the breaking of peaceful coexistence among people of different
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