The seven linguistic aspects that face the translator Mona Baker is the translation scholar. She discussed several linguistic features. She discovered the culture role in connecting meaning. There are some crucial aspects of the language that must be taken into consideration when the translator translates any text, whether it was literary or non-literary text. First aspect is the cultural terminology for certain language.
The former can be broken down into Descriptive Translation Studies and Translation Theory, which in turn are divided into Product, Process and Function oriented respectively (in: Baker 2005: 278). Focusing on the branch named Translation Theory, it is necessary to point out that this is a blanket term. This means that Translation Theory covers many definitions, methods and other translation related issues. As Newmark noted, Translation Theory states and clearly defines what are the most appropriate methods of translation of various texts belonging to different categories (Newmark 1991: 19). Newmark (1981:38) claims that “translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language.
SEMANTIC CHANGE IN URDU: A CASE STUDY OF ‘MASHKOOR’: In this paper researcher has tried to focus on the semantic change in Urdu lexis with special reference to the word ‘‘mashkoor’’ (thanked). According to him the user of a language have the authority to determine the correct forms in a language. He conclude with the basic knowledge of the how meaning of a word can change based on a different context. 1.3.2. MEANING AND CHANGE OF MEANING WITH SPECIAL REFERNCE TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: Author has explained the factors of meaning change from different perspective in his book.
1.4.1 Nagwa Taha El-Zeini (1994): El Zeini's PhD thesis is the first research to discuss the topic of the evaluation of Hadith translation. The main goal of her study is to set some criteria that can be used to evaluate the quality of Hadith's translations. She applied her new criteria to two English translations of Hadith: 1. The English translation of An-Nawaw's forty Hadith (1976) by Ibrahim and Johnson Davies. 2.
Discussions of norms by authors such as Hermans (1996) and Simeoni (1998) will therefore be left aside. In this assignment I will fully explain what norms are, how norms function in translation and I will also compare Chesterman’s norms and Toury’s norms. Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions. Norms can be expected to operate not only in translation of all kinds, but also at every stage in the translating event. A translator may subject him-/herself either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product.
Jahandarie (1999) determined an excellent place for beginning communication education. Jahandarie provided a systematic critical view towards the recent studies about the differences between written and oral traditions. Therefore, Jahandarie carried out a unique multidisciplinary work with lots of theories and evidences from different disciplines. There are several general differences between spoken and written discourse analysis. Discourse analysis includes spoken, written, and sign language.
Language Policy Language Policy contributes to the development of the field via publishing high-quality studies that help build a suitable notional understanding of the area under discussion area. It presents papers that compact with the widest range of situations, regions and cases. Many countries have a language policy planned to favor or discourage the use of a certain language or group of languages. Although nations historically have used language policies most often to encourage one official language at the cost of others, many countries now have policies designed to encourage and protect ethnic and regional languages whose survival is threatened. Indeed, whilst the existence of linguistic minorities within their jurisdiction has often
It is perhaps based on differences between territories, and societies where the language is used as a tool of communication. But language cannot be confined to communication. It may cover its speakers’ customs, cultural and ethical values, and translation may require equivalence to these values in target language. The word translation may represent the act or process of transforming words, ideologies, commands, desires, and feelings
What makes a good translation-translator? According to Edith Grossman in her book, Why Translation matters, “the most fundamental description of what translators do is that we write—or perhaps rewrite—in language B a work of literature originally composed in language A, hoping that readers of the second language—I mean, of course, readers of the translation—will perceive the text, emotionally and artistically, in a manner that parallels and corresponds to the esthetic experience of its first readers. This is the translator’s grand ambition.” A good translator must therefore first of all have the overriding ambition of giving the readers of his translated work the opportunity to experience exactly what the original writer of the book intended for them to experience. It must become a consuming ambition. If it doesn’t, the translator has already set himself up for failure.
Documentary translation is concerned with all the texts that are used in the highly official settings. It covers both the private legal documents such as: Contracts, Agreements, Certificates and Wills; and the international instruments such as: Constitutions, Statements, UN Resolutions and so on. Moreover, documentary translation is a technical translation that has its own special language, characteristics and constrains. It is considered as the most complex type of translation and accordingly it requires special skills, experiences and qualifications. Thus it is highly important to shed light on some common linguistic features in the English documentary texts, comparing them with the Arabic