It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text. Thus, translator has to be sensitive and professional. On the other hand, the object of translation aesthetics is the original text and translated text. The origin text should have value to be translated and include the aspects of informative, inspirational, enlightening and descriptive. After knowing the object and subject of translation aesthetic, the other important aspect people should know is that the aesthetic of translation has to suit the local culture.
Some experts call them as style, strategy, and technique. The existence of translation’s styles and strategies are utilized by translators to make people easy to understand the text. There are eight translation strategies e.g. word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation, semantic translation, adaptation, free translation, idiomatic translation, and communication translation (Munday, 2001; Newmark, 1988). Besides that, Venuti (2008) said that translation is only divided into two strategies: domestication and foreignization.
Translation is the observable fact that has significant impact on routine life. It may include the translation of highly valuable international treaty or it may involve an advertising poster that provides some information to the customers or conveys some message to the visitors in a hotel or restaurant. (Hatim and Munday, 2005, p. 03). Problems in Translation The main problem faced by a translator is the lack of word by word matching between languages. This is fact that each and every language has its own manner of depicting incidents or reality and the translator have to take the unique aspects of both the source and target languages into account while translating.
Since translation is inevitably involved in representing source country or culture, various elements should be considered in the process. As said above, German literary and philosophical traditions are the root of the tree of translation theory (Venuti, 2004). Therefore, we get to another important matter, namely, literary translation. Literary translation is a phenomenon which enables people of different nations with different cultural backgrounds, to read and appreciate other languages’ literary works. Thus a good translation will enrich the literary works of the target language (Haque, 2012).
According to Pienkos (2003, p. 388), a translator needs accuracy, diligence, good ability to handle the stress and also excellent memory to do the translation. However, many people think lightly about translation. They think that translation is just change words and sentences from one language into another language. Practically, a translator should have enough knowledge about the concept and the structure of the source language and the target language so they can change it in the equivalent meaning in the target language. Koller (1995, p. 196) said that a translation is the process of transposing the source language to the target language which has a relationship which is defined as equivalence relation.
Without appreciation of the beauty, there is no literary and artistic creation. As a result, literary translation, as a literary art, is always accompanied by aesthetic activities. Although there are differences in the forms of expression of beauty in different languages, this does not hinder the transmission of the beauty of literary translation because there are some similarities in aesthetic characteristics and aesthetic interests. Translation aesthetics opens up a new path for translation studies from the perspective of Chinese traditional aesthetics. By virtue of this commonality, the translator recreates the aesthetic characteristics and aesthetic interests of the original with the target language so that the reader can get the same aesthetic feeling.
In this literary system translated literature and original literature stand together and they interact with one another. The contribution of this point of view to the Translation Studies is; it makes the translator to think much more inclusively about the text by looking at the text’s surroundings, by questioning “why these texts are translated? how they are translated? and how they interact each other?”. When it is looked at many text, now that it is known they should be comprehended together, there is a new field to study on about how this interaction between the texts woks.
Translation can promote cultural exchanges among people of different cultures throughout the world, enhancing dialogue among various peoples, providing opportunities for interaction, and contributing to civilization. Al-Khotani (2013) states that “translation opens windows to other cultures and civilizations.” (p. 46). Many translation studies have shown that translation is a communicative activity aimed at a socio/cross-cultural interaction (Newmark, 1988; Hatim & Mason, 2004; Venuti, 2008). Accordingly, translation involves both language and culture since they are not only closely interrelated, but they are also interdependent (Dweik & Suleiman, 2013). The appearance in the 1980s of culture as a key concept in Translation Studies heralded
new paradigms will be created with this theory. The feature of this approach is to describe in detail the source text, the target text and target audience, the translation process, and the translation product. When we look at the history of translation theories, where we can say that every kind of information about the occurrence of translation arises from the necessity of revealing the scientific foundations and rules, as well as the aims and objectives, we see that different theories come into the foreground at every period. After the Church’s oppressive regime in the Bible translations which was prescriptive and defending word for word translation in the seventeenth century the functionalist approaches raised to the occasion. St. Jerome
Therefore the translation at the end may be diverge from the source text as the translator or the client may verbalize the source text in different ways according to their respective intentions. Vermeer stressed the aim of a translation dominate translation, but not the source text languages. Even if the textual realization or languages are not the same between the source text and the target text, the translation can still be succeed in terms of the compatibility of the function and purpose between the two