It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text. Thus, translator has to be sensitive and professional. On the other hand, the object of translation aesthetics is the original text and translated text. The origin text should have value to be translated and include the aspects of informative, inspirational, enlightening and descriptive. After knowing the object and subject of translation aesthetic, the other important aspect people should know is that the aesthetic of translation has to suit the local culture.
However, there are also some points that I do not agree with Venuti. Venuti describes invisibility as “the translator’s situation and activity in contemporary Anglo-American culture”. He points out to two ways that the invisibility is being produced; translators themselves may translate “fluently” into English giving the appearance that the text is not in fact a translation, but the original or translated texts may be read and evaluated in the target culture as if they were the original. So, according to Venuti, the more fluent and transparent the text, the more invisible the translator is since people who read the target text will think that it is an original text written by the source text author, instead of a translation produced by a translator. If they are not aware that they are reading a translation, how can they be aware of the presence of a translator?
Besides that, Venuti (2008) said that translation is only divided into two strategies: domestication and foreignization. Since translation is produced for many reasons: literacy, commercial, pedagogical, technical, propagandistic, and diplomatic, hence translators are free to decide what kinds of translation strategy they choose for their translation style to meet the meaning of the text. In line with the meaning of the translation, meaning is inseparable part in translation because the purpose of translation is about rendering the meaning of the source text to the target text. According to Alwasilah (1984:146), meaning is behind words and, according to Nida (1975), words have several meaning each other. The meaning of the words is influenced by its position in a sentence and the field of knowledge that use the
Translation studies as a discipline has been greatly concerned with metaphors especially with respect to their translatability and transfer methods. Linguists have argued that the translation of metaphors can be greatly problematic, since rendering them from one language and culture to another may be hampered by linguistic and cultural differences. Brevik (2008) explains accurately that “there are several problems related to translating metaphors, the most obvious being, as Dagut(1976:24) points out that ‘since a metaphor in the SL is, by definition, a semantic novelty, it can clearly have no existing “equivalence” in TL’”. She also quotes from Lomheim (1995:132-134), saying that “‘striking metaphors in SL can only be translated equivalently
The source culture is not expected to possess any knowledge of the target culture. Therefore, skopos theory suggests that translators have to be flexible in tackling with texts by not just merely ‘trans-coding’ or ‘transposing’ of the source text into the target language, as this cannot result in an appropriate ‘translatum’ (translated text). Merely copying makes the target text like a resemblance of the original text without any true meanings and the resultant text is not readable in the target culture. The role of the translator is to create compatibility with the target culture and to establish ‘intercultural communication’. Therefore the translation at the end may be diverge from the source text as the translator or the client may verbalize the source text in different ways according to their respective intentions.
Without appreciation of the beauty, there is no literary and artistic creation. As a result, literary translation, as a literary art, is always accompanied by aesthetic activities. Although there are differences in the forms of expression of beauty in different languages, this does not hinder the transmission of the beauty of literary translation because there are some similarities in aesthetic characteristics and aesthetic interests. Translation aesthetics opens up a new path for translation studies from the perspective of Chinese traditional aesthetics. By virtue of this commonality, the translator recreates the aesthetic characteristics and aesthetic interests of the original with the target language so that the reader can get the same aesthetic feeling.
According to Pienkos (2003, p. 388), a translator needs accuracy, diligence, good ability to handle the stress and also excellent memory to do the translation. However, many people think lightly about translation. They think that translation is just change words and sentences from one language into another language. Practically, a translator should have enough knowledge about the concept and the structure of the source language and the target language so they can change it in the equivalent meaning in the target language. Koller (1995, p. 196) said that a translation is the process of transposing the source language to the target language which has a relationship which is defined as equivalence relation.
Translators have to decide on the importance given to certain cultural aspects and to what extent it is necessary to translate them into the target language. When translating such a text, translators must be aware not only of the purely lexical nature of the text, but also of an equally basic issue of understanding the social, economic, political, and cultural contexts, which lend connotative aspects of multi-meanings to words. Carelessness treatment of these contexts may result in the breaking of peaceful coexistence among people of different
Thus we can distinguish between literary and informative translation, on the one hand, and between written and oral translation (or interpretation), on the other hand. Literary translation deals with literary texts, i.e. works of fiction or poetry whose main function is to make an emotional or aesthetic impression upon the reader. Their communicative value depends, first and foremost, on their artistic quality and the translator’s primary task is to reproduce this quality in translation. Informative translation is rendering into the target language non-literary texts, the main purpose of which is to convey a certain amount of ideas, to inform the reader.
For instance, it is only the human translator who is able of interpreting certain cultural components that may exist in the source text and that cannot be translated in terms of equivalent terms, just like what automatic translation does, into the language of the target text. In addition, it is widely agreed upon that one of the most difficult tasks in the act of translation is how to keep the same effect left by the source text in the target text. The automatic translation, in this regard, has proved its weakness, most of the time, when compared with a human translation. The human translator is the only subject in a position to understand the different cultural, linguistic and semantic factors contributing to leaving the same effect that is left in the source text, in the target