Automotive Vehicle Research Paper

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Introduction:
The automotive chassis provides the strength necessary to support the vehicular components and the payload placed upon it. The suspension system contains the springs, the shock absorbers, and other components that allow the vehicle to pass over uneven terrain without an excessive amount of shock reaching the passengers or the cargo. The steering mechanism is an integral portion of the chassis, as it provides the operator with a means of controlling the direction of travel. The tyres grip the road surface to provide good traction that enables the vehicle to accelerate, brake, and make turns without skidding. Working in conjunction with the suspension, the tyres absorb most of the shocks caused by road irregularities. The body of
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Special Busses

There are three basic types of bus manufacturer:

• Chassis manufacturer - builds the under frame in a body-on-frame type construction
• Body manufacturer - builds the coachwork a body-on-frame type construction
• Integral manufacturer - builds entire buses, often using no under frame at all

Manufacturers may also be a combination of the above, offering chassis only or integral buses, or offering bodywork only as used on integral buses. The splitting of body and chassis construction allows companies to specialize in two different fields. It also allows differing offerings of product to customers, who might prefer different chassis/body combinations. For the manufacturers, it lessens the exposure if one or the other goes out of business. Larger operators may also split orders between different body/chassis combinations for shorter delivery schedules.
Sometimes, a chassis and body builder will offer an exclusive combination of one body on one chassis, as a 'semi-integral '. This combines the expertise of the two companies, and saves the cost of making their chassis/body usable on different products.
So basically, bus body construction can be divided in Conventional type (ladder frame) or Integral Frame
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This is done by welding the components together, by forming or casting the entire structure as one piece, or by a combination of these techniques. Simply by welding a body to a conventional frame, however, does not constitute an integral frame and body construction. In a truly integrated structure, the entire frame-body unit is treated as a load-carrying member that reacts to all loads experienced by the vehicle-road loads as well as cargo loads.
Integrated-type bodies for wheeled vehicles are fabricated by welding preformed metal panels together. The panels are preformed in various load-bearing shapes that are located and oriented so as to result in a uniformly stressed structure. Some portions of the integrated structure resemble frame like components, while others resemble body like panels. This is not suppressing, because the structure must perform the functions of both of these

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