Components of Macpherson suspension system 1) Steering Knuckle: The knuckle is mounted between the upper and lower ball joints on a Short-Long Arm (SLA) suspension, and between the strut and lower ball joint Fig.1 Macpherson Suspension System 2) Macpherson Strut: A strut containing shock absorber and the spring carries also the stub axle on which the wheel is mounted. The wishbone is hinged to the cross member and positions the wheel as well as resists accelerating, braking and side forces. 3) Tie Rod or Track Rod: A tie rod is a slender structural unit used as a tie and is capable of carrying tensile & compression loads. It is also referred to as track rod when concerned with automobiles. 4) Wheel Hub Assembly: Wheel Hub Assembly is located between the brake rotors and the axle.
Actual loadings in a building are typically either concentrated or uniformly distributed over an area. The former needs no further consideration other than as necessary to illustrate them as a force vector. In the latter, however, some modeling is needed when the area considered is actually made up of an assembly of one-way line and surface elements. These elements would pick up different portions of the total load acting over the surface, depending on their
1. INTRODUCTION In automotive, steering knuckle is the part which attaches to the suspension components. It is variously called as steering knuckle or upright as well. The wheel and tire assembly attaches to the hub or spindle of the knuckle where the wheel rotates while being held in a stable plane of motion by the knuckle-suspension assembly. 1.1 Background Study Nowadays, the automobile industry becomes one of the assets for economic development.
These materials have been used for both structural and appearance purposes. That is to say, they work to bear load and give the building a facade. Dry walls and wooden panelling have also been used inside. Steel beams are also easily identifiable supporting the stair cases made of concrete. The building itself is constructed with a wide array of structural elements.
The common concept design used in a truss bridges are Basic Warren Truss Bridge Basic Pratt Truss Bridge , Howe Truss Bridge & K-Truss Bridge . All of these bridges have their own pros and cons which we will further discuss and explain. 1.Basic Pratt Truss Bridge
The construction of the reinforced concrete framed structures with brick masonry infill walls is widely adopted for commercial, industrial and residential buildings. For the functional needs and aesthetic reasons, the brick infill panels are widely used as internal and external partition walls in the reinforced concrete structures; but they are usually treated as non-structural elements. The self-weight of infill walls is considered to be acting on the beams but the contribution of the infill walls to provide resistance to the seismic loading is generally ignored in the structural analysis despite significant advances in computer technology and availability of modern computational resources. In buildings, the ordinarily occurring gravity dead and live loads do not create much of a problem, but the lateral loads like the earthquake forces need special attention and they are to be taken care of, mainly in the seismic prone areas. Seismic analysis is the structural analysis which involves the study of the response of a structure to the earthquake.
2.2 Force analysis on vehicle Determing the axle loadings on a vehicle under arbitrary conditions is a simple application of Newton’s Second Law. It is a vital step because the axle loads determine the tractive effort, which infulence the acceleration, gradeability, maximum speed and drawbar effort . The important forces that act on the vehicle are shown in fig: 2.2 Fig 2.2: arbitrary forces acting on a vehicle W is the weight of the vehicle acting at its CG with a magnitude equal to its mass times the acceleration of gravity. On a slope vehicle will have, a cosine component which is perpendicular to the road surface and a sine component parallel to the road. If the vehicle is moving along the road, it is convenient to represent the effect by an equivalent inertial force
INTRODUCTION TO ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a safety system unit used in automobiles. It allows the wheels of the vehicle to maintain traction contact with the road surface without locking up the rotation of the wheel and avoiding uncontrolled skidding. It is most widely used system of braking in modern automobiles as it allows to steer the vehicle even we are pumping the brake pedal thus lowering the chances of road crashes like car crashes loss of life is prevented PRINCIPLE USED: Threshold braking: This technique involves the driver controlling the brakes pedal pressure to maximize the braking force developed in tires. The optimal amount of braking force is applied when wheels just begin to slip. Candence