Abstract: Planning, design and implementation of traffic infrastructure is a complex task especially when it is done for infrastructure located in urban areas because it depends on different factors and interests. This is why the solutions have to be evaluated by different type of criteria (traffic, economic, environmental and social). For this purpose during last decades multi-criteria methods came into use and numerous methods have been developed which are classified as multi-criteria analysis methods (e.g. PROMETHEE, TOPSIS, and AHP). In this paper the overview of how the multi-criteria analysis method AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process is used as decision making tool in the process of transportation planning.
3.0 Role And Important Of Stakeholders Involve In The Policy Making. 3.1 Introduction Stakeholder are interested in carrying out a company for reasons other than just shares appreciation. Stakeholders could be employees who, without the company, would not have a job. Someone or group who hold investments, share, or interest in something, as a business or industry. Stakeholder participation is this increasingly important for transport policy making.
Queuing models are an abstraction of Markov chain models. On assessing their empirical validity to assign patrols to City police stations, it has been concluded that queuing theory provides good approximations of the system behaviour. We configure a fleet whose vehicles get calls while on the route. The objective is to minimize operating costs subject to several constraints, including a maximum waiting time for customers, modelled using queuing formulas. Besides the Markov chain and the queuing models, an ambulance service can be studied by computer simulation.
There numerous papers and studies that propose various methods of scheduling, some of which are discussed below. The first is a hybrid predictive control system that follows a multi objective function. This strategy allows the operator to react dynamically to real time disturbances, and react to them by holding buses at certain stops to maintain the headway between them. The dynamic design of the system requires the demand prediction
Being the vital part of the development, the activities of economy is believed as a motor in growth of economy or development itself . The relation then being tangled with environment aspect that playing as the most important part in sustainability concept. After fulfilling both concern, a development will produce then a social impact. Transportation in this chain has a role to create access-ability to resources and markets in order to assist the economic growth and later on, social development. The case then again being tangled with side effect that transportation has such as safety, congestion, pollution and non-renewable resources.
Accordingly, it leads to crucial effects on social, economic and physical developments in urban areas. (Fadzil, 2014). The study on seasonal migration is relatively important for urban planning purposes. This is because of seasonal migration is relevant to the development policy of urban planning (Obudho, 1994). Generally, its relevance is referred to two aspects or issues in urban and fringe area perspectives: (a) contribution of internal migration on urban growth as well as the pace level of urbanization (Pacione, 2001), and (b) negative implications of internal migration on urban areas such as urban sprawl, squatters and slum areas, poverty, and pollution (Skeldon, 2002, Yaakup et al., 2000).
Urban design involves the integration of knowledge from varied fields such as the built environment, urban planning, landscape architecture, civil and municipal engineering. Urban planning requires a good understanding of the physical geography that should be developed. In most cases, urban design involves the coming up with connections that connect people and places, movement and urban form and the built fabric. Urban design determines a number of factors in an area. The major one is environmental stewardship, social
Urban projects have many problems that are surely affect the assessment processes of alternatives and therefore the choice of their best. Chapter two aims to express the terms of urban design, development alternatives, assessment processes in the field of urban planning. As shown in figure 2.1, chapter two outlines the research field of study while spotting the light on a comprehensive comparison between a numbers of famous assessment methods in urban planning in order to recognize their advantages and disadvantages. Through discussing and analyzing their complexities and problems, the main defects and gabs represented in the uncertainty and fuzziness of assessment process will be concluded by the end of this chapter, figure 2.1. Fig.
To answer that question, it takes: • A purpose that drives the campaign strategy. • An analysis of the situation and the specific problem the campaign will address (identified in the Campaign planning stage) • A vision for the future the campaign is intended to contribute to. - How will the campaign contribute to change? The strategy needs: • A theory of change that explains how the campaign will contribute to the desired change. • The solutions or pathways of change promoted by the campaign, i.e.
a chosen collections of v CHAPTER 2: Literature Review Scenario Planning Scenario planning is actually a method as well as a posture. It is a fundamental way through which scenarios are created and then further utilised in the organisations. After Scenario planning is scenario planning is a method of thinking critically about change and maintaining new perceptions in the organisations. It is a path of learning and exploring the future so that the higher authorities might greet it better-prepared (Peterson, 2003). Scenario planning is an essential planning technique, which is utilised to make flexible long-term and sophisticated plans.